Discuss How Developing Countries And Developed Countries Pose Distinct Challenges For Multinational Enterprises’ Ethical Behaviour

. Discuss how developing countries and developed countries pose distinct challenges for multinational enterprises’ ethical behaviour? Using examples, discuss whether and how MNEs from developed countries adapt their ethical conduct and corporate social responsibility practices according to local expectations in developing countries. . Introduction Firms that operate internationally often encounter ethical dilemmas derived from differences in ethical principles/norms between home and host countries. What course of action is right or wrong is not always easy to ascertain when there is a disagreement in cultural values and interests. Whether multinational companies should adapt their behaviour to the local standards or follow the same universal principles upheld at home is an on going debate with no definite answer. As Donaldson (1996) agreed with the philosopher Michael Walzer, “There is no Esperanto of global ethics” . This essay commences by presenting some of the main theories regarding business ethics. After examining the ethical challenges that Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) face in a global context, it will be addressed in what degree MNEs adapt their activities to meet local values and norms. This essay also presents how some existing MNEs from developed countries have implemented their ethical strategies in developing countries. . Theories on Business Ethics Business ethics are the moral principles regarding right and wrong behaviours within a corporation. In an international context this is of particular importance as what is considered as good practice in one country may be considered unethical in another. This raises the question whether ethical principles should be adapted to local culture or whether moral principles are universal and should lead to the same behaviour around the world. Two different theoretical perspectives, relativism and absolutism, reflect both views (Cavusgil et al., 2013). . Cultural relativism follows the maxim “when in Rome do as Romans do”. Problems arise when dealing...

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UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . . . . UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . The basic concepts and procedures for dimensional analysis were developed by hydraulic engineers to determine the performances of a prototype (a full-scale structure) from the data obtained by tests on a model ( a reduced-scale structure). Here we present the general method of dimensional analysis and illustrates its application to various problems of fluid machines. Some of the important principles of similarity and use of dimensionless numbers in model analysis are also studied. . . SYSTEM OF DIMENSIONS: Dimensions refer to the qualitative characteristics for physical quantities, while units are standards of comparison for quantitative measure of dimensions. The most common systems of dimensioning a physical quantity and the Mass-length-time and the Force-length-time systems referred to as the MLT and FLT systems of units. There is no direct relationship between the quantities length L, mass M and time T. These independent quantities are called fundamental quantities. In compressible fluids, one more dimension namely temperature θ is also taken as the fundamental dimension. All other quantities such as pressure, velocity and energy etc. are expressed in terms of these fundamental quantities and are called derived or secondary quantities. For example F=MLT−2:M=FT2L−1 . . Physical quantity Symbol Dimensions M-L-T System F-L-T System *Fundamental quantities . . . Mass M M FL-1T2 Length L L L Time T T T Force F MLT-2 F *Geometric quantities . . . Area A L2 L2 Volume V L3 L3 *Kinematic quantities . . . Linear velocity u,V,U LT-1 LT-1 Angular velocity ω T-1 T-1 Acceleration a LT-2 LT-2 Discharge Q,q L3 T-1 L3 T-1 Gravity g LT-2 LT-2 Kinematic viscosity ν L2 T-1 L2 T-1 *Dynamic quantities . . . Density ρ ML-3 FL-4T2 Specific Weight w ML-2T-2 FL-3 Surface tension σ...

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Description Of Case Study

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF CASE STUDY . These case studies were conducted to identify the systems, technology, techniques, process and implementation of the Industrialised Building System (IBS) and the conventional construction for the projects around Penang. The selected projects were the Sekolah Kebangsaan Minden Heights and the Jamek Mosque in Sungai Gelugor. Sekolah Kebangsaan Minden Height is situated at Lot 3432, Bandar Gelugor, Daerah Timur Laut, Pulau Pinang. The client involve is Ministry of Education and the main contractor is Azrul Enterprise Sdn. Bhd. It is a propose project to build and complete an IBS project for 10 classroom and facilities involved. This project consists of one four-storey building which is for administration and academic use (Block A) and one two-storey building for science laboratories (Block B). Precast concrete is being used for this project as an IBS method. Furthermore, they used two IBS component specialists from Creative Precast Technics Sdn. Bhd. for beams, half slabs and stairs and Acotec Wall Panel for wall panels. As for the second choosen case study project, Jamek Mosque Sungai Gelugor is an old Malay mosque in Gelugor. Jamek Mosque located on a 1ha plot of land, in Jalan Akuarium, Gelugor, Penang, can now accommodate up to 1,800 people at a time. The previous 102 years old mosque building, which was demolished in February 2012 for the rebuilding project, was able to take in only 500 people. With an allocation of RM3.26mil from the Federal Government and RM1mil from the Penang Islamic Religious Affairs Department, the new mosque was completed within 20 months. The two-storey mosque with a sky blue dome has an administration room, toilets for the physically-challenged, wool carpeting at the main hall and non-slip tiles at the ablution room. . . . . . . 3.1 Systems In terms of system, the...

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