David Was An Attorney In His Early 40s When He Sought Treatment For Depressed Mood

Case Study David was an attorney in his early 40s when he sought treatment for depressed mood. He cited business and marital problems as the source of his distress and wondered if he was having midlife crisis. David had grown up in a comfortable suburb of a large city, the oldest of three children and the only son of a successful businessman and a former secretary. Always known to have a bit of a temper, David usually provoked his parents and his sisters into giving in to his wishes. Even if they didn’t give in to his demands, he reported that he usually went ahead and did what he wanted, anyway. David spoke of being an “ace” student and a “super” athlete but could not provide any details that would validate a superior performance in these areas. He also recollected that he had his pick of girlfriends, as most women were “thrilled” to have a date with him. David went to college, fantasizing about being famous in a high-profile career. He majored in communications, planning to go on to law school and eventually into politics. He met his first wife during college, the year she was the university homecoming queen. They married shortly after their joint graduation. He then went on to law school, and she went to work to support the couple. During law school, David became a workaholic, fueled by fantasies of brilliant work and international recognition. He spent minimal time with his wife and, after their son was born, even less time with either of them. As the same time, he continued a string of extramarital affairs, mostly brief sexual encounters. He spoke of his wife in an annoyed, devaluing way, complaining about how she just did not live up to his expectations. He waited until he...

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‘Cognitive’ Versus ‘Non-Cognitive’ Emotions

Emotion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). Emotion is the complex psychophysiological experience of an individual’s state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) andenvironmental (external) influences. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves “physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience“.[1] Emotion is associated with mood, temperament, personality and disposition, and motivation. The English word ’emotion’ is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- (variant of ex-) means ‘out’ and movere means ‘move’.[2]The related term “motivation” is also derived from the word movere. No definitive taxonomy of emotions exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include: · ‘Cognitive’ versus ‘non-cognitive’ emotions · Instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from the prefrontal cortex). · Categorization based on duration: Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example, surprise), whereas others can last years (for example, love). A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can have the emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion. The James-Lange theory posits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The functionalist approach to emotions (for example, Nico Frijda and Freitas-Magalhaes) holds that emotions have evolved for a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe. Contents  [hide] • 1 Classification • 2 Theories ◦ 2.1 Somatic theories · 2.1.1 James-Lange theory ◦ 2.2 Neurobiological theories · 2.2.1 Prefrontal cortex · 2.2.2 Homeostatic emotion ◦ 2.3 Cognitive theories · 2.3.1 Perceptual theory · 2.3.2 Affective events theory · 2.3.3 Cannon-Bard theory · 2.3.4 Two-factor theory · 2.3.5 Component process model • 3 Disciplinary approaches ◦ 3.1 Evolutionary biology ◦ 3.2 Sociology ◦ 3.3 Psychotherapy ◦ 3.4 Computer science • 4 Notable theorists • 5 See also • 6 References ◦ 6.1 Notes ◦ 6.2 Further reading • 7 External links [edit]Classification Main article: Emotion classification There are basic and complex categories, where some basic emotions can be modified in some way to form complex emotionsconditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, analogous to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to...

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Case Study On The Humanistic Approach To Counselling For John

                                  Counselling Psychology                 BOX130          A CASE-STUDY ON JOHN THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH TO COUNSELLING FOR JOHN This paper shall consider the humanistic approach to counselling developed by Carl Rogers (1902-1987) in examining the case-study of John. It shall also explain the rational for adopting this counselling approach to help John in his psychological problem. In dealing with John’s situation, the paper will consider the humanistic–person centered therapeutic techniques and skills which can help John gain control to make positive choices regarding his life. In carrying out the counselling therapeutic process to help John, there is the need to be conscious of the limitations inherent in the humanistic –person centered approach. John is believed to be suffering from different psychological issues which tend to affect both his cognitive and behavioural approach to life. John’s psychological problem is believed to be wide ranging, it includes issues such as low esteem, anxiety, bullying experience, lack of confidence, self-denial, emotional disorders, identity crisis, social issues, bereavement, college transitional issue (see case-study). John’s psychological problem can consequentially be underpinned to certain factors arising from his environment, family financial problem and bullying as well. Other factors can include his loss of a role model, bereavement and also his incongruency. The consequences resulting from some of these factors contributed to John’s psychological problems and led to his views, perception and attitudes about himself and the world around him to be negative. John’s psychological problems cannot be seen as “a product of abstract dysfunctional and internal structures such as egos or schemas, nor of isolated conditioned habits and responses, nor of biology” (Bohart, et al., 1997). The theoretical framework that underpins the psychological problems which may be affecting John’s life can be drawn from the explanation given by Carl Rogers as explained by Jarvis & Russell, (2003, pp. 44-49) According to...

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Case Study Medical Ward

Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital Legazpi City . Medical Ward . DARYLL B. BORJA, BSN IIIB Bicol University College of Nursing . Date of Interview: January 09, 2011 Informant: patient . GENERAL DATA Levi Bellen, 54 Years old, male, married, Filipino, former Factory worker, Roman Catholic, residing at Bacacay, Albay, admitted for the first time at Bicol regional Training and Teaching Hospital (Medical Ward) on January 4, 2011 at 9:30 am. . CHIEF COMPLAINT Change in sensorium . HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS Patient has four to five years history of recurrent epigastric pain relieved by meds. Few minutes PTA, patient vomited massive volume of blood about 1 – 1.5 L, then sudden change in sensorium, then rushed to the hospital. . PAST MEDICAL HISTORY No allergies to foods or drugs. No previous injuries, accidents and surgical operations. No information obtained regarding past illnesses. . PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY The patient is married to his wife, with children. He stopped working after experiencing series of epigastric pain. He previously worked in a glass factory. He had been smoking since his early 20s and stopped 5 years ago. He had been also a drinker (until the occurrence of epigastric pain) of alcoholic-beverages about once/twice a week. He denies elicit drug use. Patient drinks coffee regularly, and eats two to three times a day. He has no food preferences. . PHYSICAL EXAMINATION . – Awake, confused, in respiratory distress – Vital Signs taken as: T: 36.5 °C HR: 90 bpm RR: 30 bpm BP: 100/70 – pupil equally reactive to light , pink palpable sclera – SCE, no tachypnea, CBS – no murmurs – cold clamy skin, no edema . ADMITTING DIAGNOSIS Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding probably secondary to Hypocalemic shock secondary to PBHD. . DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATIONS: . ◦ CBC ◦ Blood Typing ◦ Urea, Na,...

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Anatomy And Physiology

I. Introduction Anatomy and Physiology The brain is the control center of the body. It is divided into the following regions: The Cerebrum – controls voluntary movements and coordinates mental activity,The Cerebellum – coordinates voluntary movements, balance and posture,The Limbic System – control center for the autonomic nervous system, emotion and memory and The Brainstem – life support systems (e.g. breathing, swallowing). The spinal cord is the portal connecting the brain to the rest of the body. The spinal cord, in an adult, is approximately 45 cm long and 1.5 cm wide and extends only to L1 or L2. Spinal nerves are named according to the vertebra they are adjacent to. Anatomy: The spinal cord is well protected inside vertebrae. The dura (hard) mater is the outermost layer protecting the spinal cord. The pia (delicate) mater is the innermost layer protecting the spinal cord. Functions: The spinal cord has a butterfly-like pattern, which consists of the grey matter – mostly unmyelinated interneurons. Afferent signals from the periphery synapse on interneurons in the grey matter of the spinal cord. Signals are then sent via myelinated neurons for processing by the appropriate centers in the brain. Pathophysiology Cerebrovascular accident or stroke (also called brain attack) results from sudden interruption of blood supply to the brain, which precipitates neurologic dysfunction lasting longer than 24 hours. Stroke are either ischemic, caused by partial or complete occlusions of a cerebral blood vessel by cerebral thrombosis or embolism or hemorrhage (leakage of blood from a vessel causes compression of brain tissue and spasm of adjacent vessels). Hemorrhage may occur outside the dura (extradural), beneath the dura mater (subdural), in the subarachnoid space (subarachnoid), or within the brain substance itself (intracerebral). Risk factors for stroke include transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) – warning sign of impending stroke – hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, elevated cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, obesity,...

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