Pairwise Alignment- Homology, Similarity, Identity

©Aayudh Das PAIRWISE ALIGNMENT- Homology, Similarity, Identity Two sequences are homologous if they share a common evolutionary ancestry. E.g. Human myoglobin and beta globin two proteins are distant but significantly related. Proteins that are homologous may be orthologous or paralogous. Orthologs are homologous sequences in different species that arose from a common ancestral gene during speciation having similar biological functions; in this example, human and rat myoglobins both transport oxygen in muscle cells. Paralogs are homologous sequences that arose by a mechanism such as gene duplication. For example, human alpha-1 globin is paralogous to alpha-2 globin; indeed, these two proteins share 100% amino acid identity. We can assess the relatedness of any two proteins by performing a pairwise alignment. One practical way to do this is through the NCBI pairwise BLAST tool. Another aspect of this pairwise alignment is that some of the aligned residues may be similar but not identical because they share similar biochemical properties. These are conservative substitutions. Amino acids with similar properties include the basic amino acids (K, R, H), acidic amino acids (D, E), hydroxylated amino acids (S, T), and hydrophobic amino acids (W, F, Y, L, I, V,M, A). The percent similarity of two protein sequences is the sum of both identical and similar matches. The purpose of a pairwise alignment is to assess the degree of similarity and the possibility of homology between two molecules. Pairwise alignment is useful as a way to identify mutations that have occurred during evolution and have caused divergence of the sequences of the two proteins we are studying. The most common mutations are substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Insertions or deletions (even those just one character long) are referred to as gaps in the alignment. Scoring matrix Margaret Dayhoff (1978) provided a model which gives the basis of…

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Methane Gas Hydrate Drilling Technology

Methane Gas Hydrate Drilling Technology Vaisakh S Unni* (male) Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Rae Bareli(U.P) E-mail: sunni.vaisakh@gmail.com Abstract: The share of Natural Gas in global energy consumption has grown steadily and will continue to rise for the years to come. Forecasted supply of compromised natural gas is in the year 2050 to be 115-120 x 10 9 toe or 13.4-14% and 228 x 209 toe of remaining ultimate reserves or 12% of the total. Catapulting demand and few discoveries is forcing world to exploit unconventional sources of energy. Methane hydrates represent a potentially enormous supply of natural gas, assuming the technology can be developed for commercial gas production from this reservoir type. These exist naturally as frozen crystalline lattice consisting of molecules of water that have formed an open, cage-like lattice that encloses molecules of methane. However, little has been written about technologies that exist and that appear to have unique potential to enable the safe and effective drilling and production of commercial quantities. In addition to hydrates being only quasi-stable, the crystalline structure packs methane so efficiently, depending upon the purity of the hydrate, it can contain between 70 and 164 times the volume of free gas at standard temperature and pressure vs. the volume of the hydrate prior to dissociation. Because hydrates will dissociate or release free gas upon a decrease of pressure, increase of temperature, or combinations thereof, premature dissociation around the wellbore and within. This paper does a review on occurrence and magnitude of methane Gas hydrates. This paper discusses drilling related challenges for exploitation of gas hydrates and proposes Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) technology using formate based drilling fluids for gas hydrate drilling. Nature of Gas Hydrates Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring crystalline inclusion compounds. They comprise compressed molecules of gas (usually methane) that…

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Methane Gas Hydrate Drilling Technology

Methane Gas Hydrate Drilling Technology Vaisakh S Unni* (male) Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Rae Bareli(U.P) E-mail: sunni.vaisakh@gmail.com Abstract: The share of Natural Gas in global energy consumption has grown steadily and will continue to rise for the years to come. Forecasted supply of compromised natural gas is in the year 2050 to be 115-120 x 10 9 toe or 13.4-14% and 228 x 209 toe of remaining ultimate reserves or 12% of the total. Catapulting demand and few discoveries is forcing world to exploit unconventional sources of energy. Methane hydrates represent a potentially enormous supply of natural gas, assuming the technology can be developed for commercial gas production from this reservoir type. These exist naturally as frozen crystalline lattice consisting of molecules of water that have formed an open, cage-like lattice that encloses molecules of methane. However, little has been written about technologies that exist and that appear to have unique potential to enable the safe and effective drilling and production of commercial quantities. In addition to hydrates being only quasi-stable, the crystalline structure packs methane so efficiently, depending upon the purity of the hydrate, it can contain between 70 and 164 times the volume of free gas at standard temperature and pressure vs. the volume of the hydrate prior to dissociation. Because hydrates will dissociate or release free gas upon a decrease of pressure, increase of temperature, or combinations thereof, premature dissociation around the wellbore and within. This paper does a review on occurrence and magnitude of methane Gas hydrates. This paper discusses drilling related challenges for exploitation of gas hydrates and proposes Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) technology using formate based drilling fluids for gas hydrate drilling. Nature of Gas Hydrates Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring crystalline inclusion compounds. They comprise compressed molecules of gas (usually methane) that…

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A Case Study Diabetes Mellitus Type II “The Weakest Link”

    A Case Study   Diabetes Mellitus Type II   “The Weakest Link”                                             Health history   Demographic profile                  Name: R.G         Gender: Male         Age: 41 years old         Birth date: September 23, 1967         Birth place: Pasig , Metro Manila         Marital status: Married         Nationality: Filipino         Religion: Born Again- Christian         Address: Brgy. Pantihan 3, Maragondon, Cavite         Educational background: High school graduate         Occupation: Factory worker in Monterey         Usual source of medical care: Doctor/Healthcare Professional     Source and reliability of information           The patient R.G is the primary source of information. He is conscious and coherent, able to speak Tagalog fluently. His wife is also considered as source of information regarding patient status and condition.   Reasons for seeking care or chief complaint (Top 3)           1st – Loss of his weight         2nd – Insufficient sleep at night         3rd – Scaly of skin       History of present illness   Patient R.G was handled during our duty at Brgy. Pantihan 3, Maragondon,,Cavite with the chief complaint of insufficient sleep at night, loss of his weight and scaly of skin. The laboratory test and special treatment for the patient are not applicable because this case is base on community setting.   PAST MEDICAL HISTORY OR PAST HEALTH   Pediatric/childhood -Incomplete immunization- (-) serious illness on this stage Injuries or accidents -1992, right leg accident due to mishandling of machine Serious or chronic illness -December 2003, Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed clinically -2x FBS result 300mg/dl -2006 Pulmonary Tuberculosis, diagnosed clinically -Chest X-ray and sputum AFB examination -2007 Urinary Tract Infections -Urinalysis (pyuria) Hospitalization -1992, Water Rose General Hospital…

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A CASE STUDY ON CNS INFECTION

A CASE STUDY ON CNS INFECTION   Submitted to; Ms. Verlyn Perez RN,MSN   Submitted by; Marie Joy R. Luczon Student Nurse I.INTRODUCTION A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child triggered by a fever. Such convulsions occur without any underlying brain or spinal cord infection or other neurological cause. A febrile seizure is a convulsion that occurs in some children with a high temperature (fever). The vast majority of febrile seizures are not serious. A seizure triggered by a fever is usually harmless and typically doesn’t indicate a long-term or ongoing problem. The first febrile seizure is one of life’s most frightening moments for parents. Most parents are afraid that their child will die or have brain damage. Thankfully, simple febrile seizures are harmless. There is no evidence that simple febrile seizures cause death, brain damage, mental retardation, a decrease in IQ, or learning difficulties. However, a very small percentage of children go on to develop other seizure disorders such as epilepsy later in life. Although described by the ancient Greeks, it was not until this century that febrile seizures were recognized as a distinct syndrome separate from epilepsy. In 1980, a consensus conference held by the National Institutes of Health described a febrile seizure as, “An event in infancy or childhood usually occurring between three months and five years of age, associated with fever, but without evidence of intracranial infection or defined cause.”It does not exclude children with prior neurological impairment and neither provides specific temperature criteria nor defines a “seizure.” Another definition from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) is “a seizure occurring in childhood after 1 month of age associated with a febrile illness not caused by an infection of the central nervous system (CNS), without previous neonatal seizures or a previous unprovoked seizure, and…

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