How A T1 Line Works

When trying to convince your boss that your company needs T1 bandwidth to help solve a network issue and meet business function requirements …. it comes in handy to know just how a T1 line works. Without that understanding you’re more likely to lose the argument and remain stuck with whatever dinosaur set-up you’re trying to move away from. As your company’s go-to IT person … you can’t afford to lose those battles. You already know that there are many flavors of T1. But you need not go into that with your boss. If necessary you can adequately describe in simple terms the difference between fractional, full, and bonded … as well as the general aspects of point-to-point and MPLS architecture. For the purposes of making your main point … just stick with describing the basic single point-to-point T1 line. . For a generic point-to-point T1 circuit, part by part, generically speaking it works like this from the premises back. Your router CSU/DSU DS1 signal connects to a SmartJack aka a Highcap Remote Unit (HRU) mounted in the Network Customer Terminating Equipment (NCTE) also known as the mounting which converts the DS1 signal to a T1 for transport. From there it is connected by either a single pair or two depending on the technology utilized to the central office repeater shelf where a Highcap Line Unit (HLU) is installed which converts the T1 signal back to a DS1 and also provides 186 or 130 volts over the copper pair(s) to power the HRU. From the CO repeater shelf the DS1 signal along with 27 others are passed to a Digital Access Crossconnect System (DACS) or muxed up to a DS3 and then to the DACS which provides mapping of the DS1 signals and remote testing capabilities. Out of the DACS the signal is most commonly a DS3 or higher and passed to another MUX along with other DS3’s for conversion to an OCx for interoffice transport. At the other end the process is reversed. As far as a T1 switching device at the provider end … depending on the type of circuit, there are fast packet switches, frame relay switches and routers. Now your boss may turn glassy eyed halfway through your technical diatribe above …. but that’s alright. You have shown a thorough knowledge of the workings behind what you want … a T1 line based network. That should...

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Build Your Own Remote Controlled Exploding Balloon Kit

Make the party go with a bang. Remote Controlled Exploding Balloons. Balloon exploders from major party and balloon companies can cost of lot of money to hire. But did you know a basic remote package can cost around £10 and takes minutes to setup ? Here are the instructions to create your own Remote control Balloon Exploding Kit. SAFTEY FIRST : Instructions for connecting a remote device from Techex to explode balloons. These instructions are intended for users who already have experience with wiring a small circuit board. Experience in using other types of balloon exploding equipment is helpful. The Balloon uses a device that generates heat. Do not touch this device and make sure it is secured away from other items to prevent burning. Remote control kits for many household uses are common place on ebay. Although they are not sold as remote balloon remote exploders they are the essentially the same thing… a remote on a keyring and a sensor. We use an ebay shop called Techex who sell a “wireless electric door remote control kit” for £5. Search for Techex in the ebay shops. They are based in Hong Kong and will deliver around the world. We then purchase cable, batteries and connector snap clips for a couple of pounds. A complete system for around a tenner. Remote kits are easily available from the internet. We use the ebay Shop Techex online and cost around £6.00 Postage takes 5 business days. Although they sell the kits as a “RF Wireless Electric Garage Gate Door Remote Control”. The technology is standard and can be applied to connect to different systems. In addition to the kits from Techex, the following also need to be purchased : 2 x PP3 battery connector snap clips for a 9 volt battery are required (ebay cost around 7p + postage) Electrical Cable (around £5 for a 10m roll on ebay) 9v batteries A small-gage filament or resistor that generates heat is used to burst the balloon Here are the instructions : 1. The lid unclips revealing the circuit and the 8 connecting screws on the right hand side. 2. Connect the positive cable from the battery snap clip to the screw labelled + and the negative cable to the screw labelled – 3. Connect cable from screw number 4 to one side of the filament. 4. Connect one cable of a PP3 battery...

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A Comparison between A Course in Miracles and Quantum Physics

Quantum physics is confusing, confounding, and convoluted. It indicates that our universe is upside down, and what we think we see is not reality. In fact, physicists are having a hard time determining what reality really is. At the subatomic level, particles can be in two places at one time, can pop in and out of existence, can be created out of nothing, and can communicate faster than the speed of light, as if they are reading each others’ minds. This is an article comparing the ideas of quantum physics with those of A Course in Miracles (ACIM). Pioneer physicist Neils Bohr said, “Anyone not shocked by quantum mechanics has not understood it.” Likewise, students of A Course in Miracles are known for throwing their Course books across the room and swearing about its seemingly ridiculous message. ACIM and physics tend to agree that the nature of physical reality is deceiving. However, they tend to diverge on the ultimate nature of reality, because A Course in Miracles states that physical forms do not even exist and have never existed. In the meantime, many physicists are still searching for a grand unified theory that will explain how the universe works. This article is a brief overview of complex topics, therefore it is necessarily incomplete. Leading physicists differ widely in their interpretations of quantum reality and new discoveries are being made constantly. A Course in Miracles is also subject to interpretation, therefore, so are the ideas in this article. To compare concepts, it is important to distinguish between how the Course defines “heaven,” as opposed to the earthly level of form/matter. Heaven is changeless, formless, eternal love. Nothing but God/Love exists and there is no physical universe, no bodies, no planets, no form. It is pure non-duality, oneness with no opposite. However, we perceive that we live in bodies on planet earth, so ACIM speaks to us as if those are real, while telling us that ultimately they are not. On earth there is duality, apparent choices to be made among opposites. Separation is the rule—separate bodies, separate nations, separate time periods, etc. Heaven is outside of time and space, and, according to ACIM, time and space do not even exist, because “Reality is ultimately known without a form, unpictured and unseen.” (T-27.III.5:2) A Particle or a Wave? What Albert Einstein saw in quantum physics experiments upset him so much that he...

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This Paper Argues That The Expanding Scope Of `computing Science’ Makes It Difficult To Sustain Traditional Scientific And Engineering Models Of Research

See also What is a PhD in HCI? As well as Aaron Sloman’s Notes on Presenting Theses. . What is Research in Computing Science? Chris Johnson Glasgow Interactive Systems Group (GIST), Department of Computer Science, Glasgow University, Glasgow, G12 8QQ. Tel: +44 141 330 6053 Fax: +44 141 330 4913 EMail:johnson@dcs.gla.ac.uk This paper argues that the expanding scope of `computing science’ makes it difficult to sustain traditional scientific and engineering models of research. In particular, recent work in formal methods has abandoned the traditional empirical methods. Similarly, research in requirements engineering and human computer interaction has challenged the proponents of formal methods. These tensions stem from the fact that `Computing Science’ is a misnoma. Topics that are currently considered part of the discipline of computing science are technology rather than theory driven. This creates problems if academic departments are to impose scientific criteria during the assessment of PhDs. It is, therefore, important that people ask themselves `What is Research in Computing Science’ before starting on a higher degree. This paper is intended as a high level introduction for first year research students or students on an advanced MSc course. It should be read in conjunction with Basic Research Skills in Computing Science Keywords: research skills, computing science. 1. Introduction Good research practice suggests that we should begin by defining our terms. The Oxford Concise dictionary defines research as: • research. 1.a. the systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc, in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. b. an endeavour to discover new or collate old facts etc by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation. This definition is useful because it immediately focuses upon the systematic nature of research. In other words, the very meaning of the term implies a research method. These methods or systems essentially provide a model or structure for logical argument. 1.1 The Dialectic of Research The highest level of logical argument can be seen in the structure of debate within a particular field. Each contribution to that debate falls into one of three categories: • thesis This presents the original statement of an idea. However, very few research contributions can claim total originality. Most borrow ideas from previous work, even if that research has been conducted in another discipline. • antithesis This presents an argument to challenge a previous thesis. Typically, this argument may draw upon new sources...

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Thermoelectric Coolers Also Called Thermoelectricmodules Or Peltier Coolers

THERMOELECTRIC COOLER . THERMOELECTRIC COOLERS ABSTRACT Thermoelectric coolers also called thermoelectric modules or Peltier coolers. They are semiconductor based electronic components that function as small heat pumps. On applying a low DC voltage to the thermoelectric module, heat moves through the module from one side to the other. One face of the module is therefore cooled, while the other face simultaneously heats up. This phenomenon can also be reversed by changing the polarity of the applied DC voltage causing the heat to flow in the opposite direction. Thereby, a thermoelectric module may be used for both heating and cooling which makes it highly suitable for precise temperature control applications. Conventional coolers used in homes and industries depend on refrigerants such as hydro fluoro carbon, which is a threat to the ozone layer. On the other hand, thermoelectric coolers are environment friendly, compact and affordable. Thermoelectric coolers are semiconductor based devices. They have got several advantages like solid construction, quiet & reliable operation, no CFC’s, precise temperature control. A thermoelectric cooler permits lowering the temperature of an object below ambient as well as maintaining the temperature of objects above ambient temperatures. Thermoelectric coolers can be used for applications that require heat removal ranging from milli-watts up to several thousand watts. Therefore they are used for the most demanding industries such as medical, laboratory, aerospace, semiconductor, telecom, industrial, and consumer. Uses range from simple food and beverage coolers for an afternoon picnic to extremely sophisticated temperature control systems in missiles and space vehicles. A thermoelectric cooler  provide a solution that is smaller, weighs less, and is more reliable than a comparatively small compressor system. It offers a convenient earth friendly alternative. Researchers are working on improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices, reducing their cost and increasing their applications. . . Submitted By:-                 Kapil Agrawal                 Regd NO- 1001217041                 Electrical Engg. . . . . . . . 1Introduction Although the principle of thermoelectricity dates back to the discovery of the Peltier effect in 1834[1], there was little practical application of the phenomenon until the middle 1950s. Prior to then, the poor thermoelectric properties of known materials made them unsuitable for use in a practical refrigerating device. It is only from the mid-1950s at which the major thermoelectric material design approach was introduced by A.V.Ioffe, leading to the inventory of semiconducting compounds such as Bi2Te3, which is currently used in thermoelectric coolers. These materials made possible the development of practical thermoelectric devices for...

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