UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . . . . UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . The basic concepts and procedures for dimensional analysis were developed by hydraulic engineers to determine the performances of a prototype (a full-scale structure) from the data obtained by tests on a model ( a reduced-scale structure). Here we present the general method of dimensional analysis and illustrates its application to various problems of fluid machines. Some of the important principles of similarity and use of dimensionless numbers in model analysis are also studied. . . SYSTEM OF DIMENSIONS: Dimensions refer to the qualitative characteristics for physical quantities, while units are standards of comparison for quantitative measure of dimensions. The most common systems of dimensioning a physical quantity and the Mass-length-time and the Force-length-time systems referred to as the MLT and FLT systems of units. There is no direct relationship between the quantities length L, mass M and time T. These independent quantities are called fundamental quantities. In compressible fluids, one more dimension namely temperature θ is also taken as the fundamental dimension. All other quantities such as pressure, velocity and energy etc. are expressed in terms of these fundamental quantities and are called derived or secondary quantities. For example F=MLT−2:M=FT2L−1 . . Physical quantity Symbol Dimensions M-L-T System F-L-T System *Fundamental quantities . . . Mass M M FL-1T2 Length L L L Time T T T Force F MLT-2 F *Geometric quantities . . . Area A L2 L2 Volume V L3 L3 *Kinematic quantities . . . Linear velocity u,V,U LT-1 LT-1 Angular velocity ω T-1 T-1 Acceleration a LT-2 LT-2 Discharge Q,q L3 T-1 L3 T-1 Gravity g LT-2 LT-2 Kinematic viscosity ν L2 T-1 L2 T-1 *Dynamic quantities . . . Density ρ ML-3 FL-4T2 Specific Weight w ML-2T-2 FL-3 Surface tension σ...

Continue Reading# Category: Mathematics

## Combined Radiation And Convection

EXPERIMENT NO: 01 DATE: 25-07-12 . COMBINED RADIATION AND CONVECTION . . AIM • To determine the heat transfer due to radiation and convection from cylinder. • To find emissivity at different temperatures. • To find natural convection coefficient. . APPARATUS REQUIRED • Thermometer • Heater • Stopwatch • Sand paper . THEORY If a surface, at a temperature above that of its surroundings, is located in stationary air at the same temperature as the surroundings then heat will be transferred from the surface to the air and surroundings. This transfer of heat will be a combination of natural convection to the air (air heated by contact with the surface becomes less dense and rises) and radiation to the surroundings. A horizontal cylinder is used in this exercise to provide a simple shape from which the heat transfer can be calculated. Note: Heat loss due to conduction is minimised by the design of the equipment and measurements mid way along the heated section of the cylinder can be assumed to be unaffected by conduction at the ends of the cylinder. Heat loss by conduction would normally be included in the analysis of a real application. . In the case of natural (free) convection the Nusselt number Nu depends on the Grashof and Prandtl numbers and the heat transfer correlation can be expressed in the form: Nusselt number, Nu = f (Gr, Pr) Rayleigh number, Ra = (Gr Pr) The average heat transfer coefficient for radiation Hrm can be calculated using the following relationship: Hrm= ΣζF(Ts4−Ta4)(Ts−Ta).. The average heat transfer coefficient for natural convection Hcm can be calculated using the following relationship: Tfilm= Ts+Ta2.. β= 1Tfilm.. Ngr= gβ(Ts−Ta)D3υ2.. Rad = (Grd × Pr) Num = b(Rad)n, (c and n can be obtained from the table below) Hfm= kNumD.. Note: k, Pr, and n are physical properties of the air taken at...

Continue Reading## Clover Machines (case Study)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOBALIZATION Clover Machines (case study) . Katia Almeida Brandman University FINU 615 . . . . . Introduction Globalization is responsible for several changes in the world, influencing political and social relationships, technological development, methods of work etc. The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of globalization on manufacture. One of the changes brought by globalization is the fact that robots are being more and more utilized in the production process. These machines are programmed to perform rapid, standardized and effective movements, therefore increasing production efficiency. Analysis According to data released by the United Nations (UN), approximately eighty five thousand robots are introduced annually in industries worldwide. It is estimated that there are over eight hundred thousand robots performing work that could employ about two million people. This process is driven by several factors, one being the maximization of production: the use of robots can substantially increase production in certain industries. To companies, the use of machinery is more advantageous since not only production efficiency rate is higher but payroll is reduced and therefore profitability is higher. Robots, despite having to go through maintenance, are more beneficial for companies because, unlike workers they do not get sick, do not take vacations, do not get pregnant, do not need rest, do not get paid and do not complain, among other factors. Globalization has created another market that is the resale. The Netherlands is the largest exporter of agricultural products in Europe and the world. The strategy is to import products from countries where these products have little commercial value (mainly China – vegetables) and re-export to countries with large economic power that are willing to pay higher prices for the same products. The theory of...

Continue Reading## Banking Regulations Act, 1949

MANAGEMENT OF BANKS Assignment:1 RbI and banking regulations act,1949 Submitted By Archita De Registration No.:-BIM0409BM012 In partial fulfillment of requirements for award of the degree of Post Graduation Diploma In management (PGDM), 2009-2011 . . . Under the Guidance of Mrs. Pragyan Sarangi (Faculty), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan(BCCM),Bhubaneswar. . Acknowledgement . It is with the deep sense of gratitude that I express my sincere indebtedness to Mrs. Pragyan Sarangi (Faculty) Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhubaneswar under whose guidance, supervision and encouragement the present study was undertaken and completed. Her sympathetic, accommodating and constructive nature remained a constant source of inspiration for me throughout the duration of this project. Thanking You, Archita De Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.(BCCM), Bhubaneswar. . . . . . Executive Summary ....

Continue Reading## At Most Half The Population Have Values Less Than The Median And At Most Half Have Values Greater Than The Median

Hide Wikipedia is getting a new lookHelp us find bugs and complete user interface translations Notice something different? We’ve made a few improvements to Wikipedia. Learn more. [Hide] [Help us with translations!] Median From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the statistical concept. For other uses, see Median (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Median language. In probability theory and statistics, a median is described as the numeric value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then defined to be the mean of the two middle values.[1][2] In a sample of data, or a finite population, there may be no member of the sample whose value is identical to the median (in the case of an even sample size) and, if there is such a member, there may be more than one so that the median may not uniquely identify a sample member. Nonetheless the value of the median is uniquely determined with the usual definition. A related concept, in which the outcome is forced to correspond to a member of the sample is the medoid. At most half the population have values less than the median and at most half have values greater than the median. If both groups contain less than half the population, then some of the population is exactly equal to the median. For example, if a < b < c, then the median of the list {a, b, c} is b, and if a < b < c < d, then the median of the list...

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