Civil Liberties Union Vs The Executive Secretary

CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION VS THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 194 SCRA 317 Political Law: Ex Officio Officials-Members of the Cabinet-Singularity of Office-EO 284 . FACTS: In July 1987, then President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order No.  284 which allowed members of the Cabinet, their undersecretaries and assistant secretaries to hold other government offices or positions in addition to their primary positions subject to limitations set therein. The Civil Liberties Union (CLU) assailed this EO averring that such law is unconstitutional. The constitutionality of EO 284 is being challenged by CLU on the principal submission that it adds exceptions to Sec 13, Article 7 of the Constitution which provides: . “Sec. 13. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office.” . CLU avers that by virtue of the phrase “unless otherwise provided in this Constitution“, the only exceptions against holding any other office or employment in Government are those provided in the Constitution, namely: (i) The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet under Sec 3, par. (2), Article 7; and (ii) the Secretary of Justice is an ex-officio member of the Judicial and Bar Council by virtue of Sec 8 (1), Article 8. . ISSUE: Whether or not EO 284 is constitutional. . HELD: No, it is unconstitutional. It is clear that the 1987 Constitution seeks to prohibit...

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Chapter One Would Be On Introduction Which Would Cover The Brief Aspects About Rural Consumer Behavior.

. . . . . CHAPTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1 . Chapter one would be on Introduction which would cover the brief aspects about Rural Consumer behavior. The main theme of this chapter would include the aims and objectives of the research, the hypothesis which has been framed , purpose of the research and the future area of the research. . . Chapter 2 . The chapter two would be on executive summary which would draw theoretical underpinnings on the subject area of the research. This section would start with the basic concepts of role efficacy and role clarity and empirical evidences on the impact which rural consumer behavior. . . Chapter 3 . Chapter three would be on Research Methodology and Process which would cover the process which is adopted by the researcher for conducting the research. The entire research process along with choosing of the appropriate research design and sampling procedure would be specified in detail. The main purpose of this section would also be to specify about the various research tools and techniques which are used by the researcher in completing the research. Proper justification for the use of particular research technique would be provided as a part of the section. Lastly Limitations faced by the researcher while conducting the research would also be included. . Chapter 4 . Chapter four would be on limitation which would cover broadly about the answers given by the respondents so that conclusions can be derived by the data collected. . Chapter 5 Chapter five would be on data findings and analysis which would cover broadly about the answers given by the respondents so that conclusions can be derived by the data collected. ....

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Change Management Plays An Important Role In Any Organization Since The Task Of Managing Change Is Not An Easy One.

Importance of change management Change management plays an important role in any organization since the task of managing change is not an easy one. When we say managing change we mean to say that making changes in a planned and systemic fashion. With reference to the IT projects we can say the change in the versions of a project and managing these versions properly. Changes in the organization or a project can be initiated from within the organization or externally. For example a product that is popular among the customers may undergo a change in design based on the triggering factor like a competitive product from some other manufacturer. This is an example of external factor that triggers a change within the organization . Introduction “UPSer:…..As you know, our company is experiencing a series of dynamic changes. We are, more than ever, questioning why and how we do everything associated with running our business. During this time, we have come to realize that many of the traditional processes we have become accustomed to need to change because they continue to increase our operating costs. We all need to admit to…shortcomings and then commit to becoming advocates for the change required to move to a much higher level.” Kent C. “Oz” Nelson, Chief Executive Officer “Change represents an opportunity to grow…to participate in the creation of the UPS of tomorrow.” Jim Kelly, Chief Operating Officer As the year 2000 approaches, the economy is changing from a manufacturing base to an information/service base. What has brought about these changes? Demographic and economic changes, technological advances, increased global competition, emphasis on quality, customer demands forcing companies to look for ways to be more efficient (outsourcing, part-time workers, self-directed work teams), government policy changes (NAFTA), and other workforce issues such as the decline of...

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Celtic-israelite Commonalities

. . CELTIC-ISRAELITE COMMONALITIES by Yaacov Levi To many who are interested in the history of the Celtic peoples and their modern descendants in Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany and Cornwall, and from their descendants around the world a subject that is often brought up is possible connections with the ancient Israelites, in particular the “Lost Tribes” of Israel. The purpose of this article is not to establish ‘connections’ to the Lost Tribes, but to discuss some of the many common characteristics of these modern Celtic peoples and the ancient Israelites. These characteristics I call Commonalities. I am not attempting in this short article to establish connections which has been addressed in many other volumes such as The Tribes and Ephraim by Yair Davidy and The Lost Tribes of Israel – Found! by Steven Collins as well as in ancient works. I am simply going to point out and discuss a very few of the great many commonalities between these peoples. The Lost Tribes of The House of Israel The peoples we refer to as the Lost Tribes were part of the Northern Kingdom of Israel which was conquered by the Assyrians around 740-720 BC. and exiled to areas in Assyria and to the north. This is told in the the Bible in 2Kings chapters 17 and 18. About the same time a contingent from the Kingdom of Judah were also exiled to the northern lands. It is these peoples and their immediate descendants that are also variously referred to as the Lost Tribes, and the subject of many works and studies. Being both Irish and Jewish, I grew up familiar with customs and the cultures of both peoples, only in later years becoming aware that they were quite difference cultures and had greatly varying cultural characteristics. Yet growing up with both cultures, I had noticed similarities even...

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Case Study Reclaiming Land From Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbor The Public Demands A Voice

Case study: Reclaiming land from Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbor: The Public Demands a Voice . I. Overview of the case Through the years Hong Kong’s economy and population have been growing in a rapid pace. During the British rule the executive-led model of decision making reigned and a whole generation was raised in an environment where there was little space for civic involvement in policy making.[1] Prior to the handover of Hong Kong to China some measures were introduced to allow some more democratic mechanism that would act as a checks and balance on the executive-led government.[2] . To foster the economic growth, the executive-led authorities of Hong Kong explored ways to expand its land surface and further spur economic growth through investments in infrastructure and residential and commercial real estates. A dispute between the Government and civil society organizations about the extent of the reclamation of Victoria Harbor emerged and impacted the primacy of policy making in Hong Kong. . The case study shows how the Hong Kong Government indicated it was willing to make initial steps towards moving away from a view of the issue of reclamation as a competitive issue to one of a common problem. The solution of such a common problem would be in finding a balance between environmental protection and urban development.[3] The quest to such a solution should occur through a process that is perceived as fair, transparent and participatory by the non-government stakeholders. In order to achieve such a status it is important that the Government changes its perspective of unilaterally deciding what is good for the country to actually moving to a modus of operandi that not only informs the public about its plans but allows for meaningful engagement that involves consultation in the policy making process. . II. Sequence of...

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