The Gentle Land – Portugal

The word of Portugal always comes with Spain as these two countries are bordered with each other. Located in the westernmost of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, to the west of Portugal, it is the Atlantic Ocean. Actually, when you hear someone is talking about Portugal, 90% of the conversation will be about travel, which just shows the fact that in people’s impression Portugal is just their perfect choice for a vacation while the US is a country where you can study or work. When to go The mainland of Portugal is divided into two parts by the river Tagus. The northern part is mountainous yet with plateaus formed by river valleys. In the south, the climate is comparatively warmer and drier. In terms of the best time to visit during the year, it depends on different areas. However, in general, Portugal has a Mediterranean climate but is one of the warmest countries in Europe. The average temperature varies from 13 °C to 18 °C. In some areas, according to the record in history, it can be as high as 50°C. Therefore, spring and autumn are two pleasant seasons to visit while in summer from July to August, the weather is going to be very hot. In winter, Portugal is fairly warm and then a lot of European people come in winter to have a short break. Things to do Portugal is a paradise for tourists as there are a lot of things you can experience. • Alfama Alfama is located in the capital city of Portugal, Lisbon. It is the oldest area in Lisbon. Walking around here you can enjoy the medieval atmosphere and some unique scenes. It is a quite tranquil village with drying laundry dancing in the wind and bronze balconies. • Portugal’s best beaches Want to find Portugal’s best beaches and enjoy the sunshine? Come to visit Algarve region. • Torre de Belem Located on the bank of Tagus River in Lisbon, Torre de Belem’s original function is for military defense. During decades, this famous monument has been shaped by the river little by little. The tour of Torre de Belem could be a feast for your eyes. • Gulbenkian Museum If you would like to admire a vast bulk of art works, go ahead to Gulbenkian Museum where a lot of ancient paintings, Middle Eastern art and Egyptian sculptures are displaying there. Like most of...

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The Ancient Greek Musical Modes, the Four Temperaments and their Planetary Links.

This is number four in a set of short articles exlaining how to use ancient musical modes to strengthen mental balance and inner harmony. The first article covered the subject broadly; the second dealt with the Phlegmatic Temperament; and the third, with the Choleric temperament. The present article deals with balancing the Sanguine. I will also go into the ancient Pythagorean concept of the Four Temperaments and the Eight musical modes. Sanguine types are usually very sociable”. When it is in balance, the sanguine humour exhibits these characteristics:- * Cheerfulness * Affable nature * Warm personality * Enthusiastic nature * Optimism * Friendly personality * Easy going character When it is unbalanced it projects:- * Lack of perseverence * Trouble with punctuality * Absent mindedness * Wears Heart on his/her sleeve. (Too naive and trusting) * Inconsistent Playing the Lydian mode increases the good qualities of the Sanguine. So, if we need to feel more sociable, or more optimistic, for example. we should listen to that mode. If, on the other hand, the Sanguine is too strong in us, (perhaps we have been partying a little too much recently, or need grounding), we could play the hypolydian. This mode would also help correct an out-of-balance Sanguine if we happen to have been experiencing negative Sanguine qualities. The Temperaments and the Planets According to the Astrology of the Pythagorean School, each Temperament is governed by two planets: One magnifies the effects of the temperament, and the other minimises them. The phlegmatic is increased by the SUN and minimised by the MOON; The choleric is exaggerated by MARS and decreased by MERCURY; The sanguine is magnified by JUPITER and minimised by VENUS; And the melancholic is increased by SATURN. There is no planet to balance the Saturnian effect on the melancholic, but I will deal with that in a few moments. The Eight Musical Modes and the Planets The eight modes and seven planets leave a mode without a planet. This is the reason why the melancholic humour has only one planet associated with it. The dorian is governed by the SUN. So one of its strengths is that it is good for general alertness. The hypodorian, on the other hand, is ruled by the MOON. So it helps us to fall asleep. Therefore these two modes balance the phlegmatic, which is also ruled by the Sun and Moon. The phrygian mode...

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Standardization of Herbal Drugs

Copyright (c) 2014 Vaishali Shah Over the last many years, herbal medicine is becoming an increasingly popular form of healthcare worldwide, as people are turning more and more to nature based treatment of physical ailments and diseases. With a remarkable rise in the consumption of plant-based medicines, more and more pharmaceutical companies are investing heavily in herbal formulations. Herbal medicine is ages old Hundred of years ago, our medical treatment was dominated by plant-based medicine. The flourishing of Ayurvedic medicines in India, and Kampo medicine in Japan are some examples. With the increase in synthetic drugs, herb based medicine gradually took a back seat. But in recent years, it has made a big comeback, especially in the Western countries, owing to its comparatively lesser side effects. Why is standardization of herbal drugs important? With intense research being carried out in the field of herbal medicine by pharmaceutical giants, it is important at there should be an accepted level of standardization in the process. A key thrust area for herbal formulations and medicinal plants is the high level of quality assurance. While plants are comparatively safe due to their low toxic levels, their complex composition and chemical constituents require detailed understanding, in order to assess their therapeutic properties accurately. Incorrect herbal authentication, microorganism adulteration and residue of chemical pesticides warrants standardization of herbal drugs. This results in the development of effective and safe herbal medicines. WHO guidelines for standardization of herbal drugs With the rapid increase of herbal medicines and the phenomenal expansion of the herbal medicine market, the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, and the quality of medicinal plants has become a major cause of concern amongst pharmaceutical companies, public health authorities and consumers. The World Health Organization has laid down a set of guidelines for the entire herbal standardization process. This begins with the authentication stage, where different aspects of the plant are examined in detail. Things like regional status of the herb, its taxonomical identity, and histological and microscopical analysis are given special attention. All the collected herbs should be free from foreign matter like animal excreta, body parts of dead insects and loose soil. Evaluating the sensory characters, like odour, appearance, taste and feel, is called organoleptic evaluation. After testing the tissues of diagnostic importance in the herbal drug, the extractive and ash values are studied, along with the determination of moisture content. Further tests are...

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Islam And The West – We Are Culturally Closer Than We Accept

After reading an article from the archives of Salon.com entitled “Why Americans can’t find Islam on the Map” by Salon senior writer Eric Boehlert, I was particularly incensed not because Americans can’t find Islam. It was the date of the article September 21/01 that incensed me. Almost five years has gone by and yet Western civilization remains unfamiliar with the Arab regions. In Boehlert’s article, he cites Charles Kimball, chairman of the department of religion at Wake Forest University, and an Islamic scholar. “Most people have a detailed ignorance of the Middle East. They have all these images and details in their head but little coherence or understanding.” I find that is as true to today as it was five years ago. Put simply, we have been misguided. The media paints a grim picture based on propaganda and hardcore documentation and leaves us confused, fearful of the unknown. The truth is that we are culturally closer than we accept. The shaping of our mathematics can be attributed to Al-Khwarizmi (c.780-c.850), the chief librarian of the observatory, research center and library called the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. His treatise, “Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala” (“Calculation by Restoration and Reduction), which covers linear and quadratic equations, solved trade imbalances, inheritance questions and problems arising from land surveyance and allocation. In passing, he also introduced into common usage our present numerical system, which replaced the old, cumbersome Roman one. Without Arabian improvements upon the compass, the astrolabe, nautical maps and seaworthy lanterns, Magellan, Cabot, Vasco da Gama, Columbus, et al., might have had trouble pulling anchor and leaving port. The Arabs also pioneered the usage of hydraulic presses and water clocks, which tracked the passage of time and phases of the moon. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayym is certainly one the most famous works of Arabic translation in the English language. In his seminal “Algebra”, Khayym attempted a fusion of algebraic and geometric methods, discussing the solution of cubic equations by geometric means, anticipating analytical geometry. Khayym also dabbled in astronomy, his lunar calculations leading him to reform the calendar in 1079. The first madrassas in Spain, in Malaga, Zaragoza and Cordoba, which later evolved into universities, started in the 11th century. The foundation of Damascus University dates back to the 8th century. Our modern-day idioms have roots steeped in the Arabic language. Dragoman, a wonderfully resonant word, meaning an interpreter or guide in...

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Ibrahim Rahimtullah

Period: (1862-1942) Ibrahim Rahimtullah was a son of Rahmatullah Kadar, a well-known merchant in Bombay. Sir Ibrahim Rahimtullah was born in Bombay on May, 1862 in a family having no political tradition. He took his education in Elphinstone High School. He was a diligent student and showed particular aptitude for arithmetic, algebra and geometry. His failure in the Matriculation examination in 1897 marked an end of his scholastic career, and he joined his elder brother, Muhammad Rahmatullah in business. The death of his father in 1880 was a great calamity for the young brothers, who were left without any experience in business. Ibrahim Rahimtullah chalked out a different field for himself. It was a beginning of a busy and changing age in India; and there was enough animation in the city life of Bombay. In the meantime, the All Indian National Congress came into existence in 1885, therefore, his youthful days were cast in auspicious times. Ibrahim Rahimtullah had slowly but steadily paved his way to the front until he was honoured to be described by the Imam as “the most distinguished member our community has produced in Western India.” In 1892, he joined Bombay Municipal on behalf of the Mandavi Board. His association with the Corporation therefore covered an uninterrupted period of 26 years of strenuous work. In 1895, he foretold an incoming danger of the plague in Bombay, but the British India ignored it. Eventually, the disease broke out in 1897, making the victims of countless lives. He became the President of the Standing Committee of Bombay Municipal in 1898, and was elected as a Mayor of Bombay in 1899 and received great deal of encouragement from Sir Pherozesha Mehta. His services for his city were manifold, and there was hardly a single subject of civic importance, which he did not deal within a spirit of broad statesmanship. In 1898, the Bombay Municipal deputed him as a representative in Bombay City Improvement Trust, where he served for 20 years (1898-1918). In 1899, he was honoured as J.P. When he became a member of the Provincial Parliament, the Ismailis honoured him in a grand banquet on August 4, 1900. Ibrahim Rahimtullah was a member of Bombay Legislative Council (1899-1912), Imperial Legislative Council (1913-1916), Government’s Executive Council for Education and Local Self-Government (1918-1923), the President of Legislative Council, Bombay (1923-1928), Member of Indian Legislative Assembly in 1931, whose President in...

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