Ramses II

King Ramses II , who dominated for 67 years during the 19th dynasty of the 12th century BC, was known as “Ramses the Great”. He is identified as one of Egypt’s greatest warriors, but likewise as a peace-maker and for the repositories he left down everyplace Egypt. He was the best king in history to sign a peace pact with his oppositions, the Hittites, close long years of warfares and hostility.King Ramses ruled for 67 years (1292–1225 B.C.). Under him Egypt got unprecedented brilliance. His empire passed from Syria to close the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. King Ramses given repositories throughout Egypt. The serious ones are likely the temple at Karnak, which he accomplished; the Rameseum, his mortuary temple, at Thebes; the temple at Luxor; and the great rock temple at Abu Simbel with four sitting figures of the king on the facade. The period of his rule was characterise by great luxury, increased slavery, and the growth of a mundane regular army, all of which taken to the final fall of Egypt. King Ramses II was born to Queen Tuy , his father Seti I. He was given the throne at the years of about 20 and dominated for 67 years. This provided him to be the second longest ruling Pharaoh. Heir to Harmhab and ruler of early Egypt during the 19th and 20th dynasties King Ramses I was grandfather of Ramses II. This son of Seti, who was not successor to the throne but alternatively upsurped it, got Egypt to unexampled splendor during his long prevail from 1292 B.C to 1225 B.C. Born about 1303 B. C. in the eastern River Nile Delta, Ramses 2 was identified as the Warrior Pharaoh and Son of Ra, the sun god. A great child, he was established co-ruler by his aging father and base the throne in 1297 B.C. at years 24. For tradition Ramses II was the Pharaoh of Egypt in the biblical Exodus account. Married to Nefertari, whose tomb is taken the most fair in Egypt. Ramses II was an ambitious builder, a prosperous general and a popular rule. He was thought to have fathered 100 children during his lifetime. Ramses II given a massive list of constructions like the new capital in the Nile delta. He completed the columned great hall in the temple of Amon-re at Karnak. At Abu Simbel he made the stone temple and...

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Musta’alins (bohras)

“Badr al-Jamali, the Fatimid vizir expected the succession of Musta’li but he died in 487/1095, a month before the death of Imam al-Mustansir. The Imam appointed Lawun Amin ad-Dawla as a new vizir, but after few days, al-Afdal, the son of Badr al-Jamali managed to obtain office of vizirate when the Imam was on death-bed. After the death of Imam al-Mustansir, the year 487/1095 marks the triumph of vizirial prerogative over caliphal authority in the structure of the Fatimid empire. Al-Afdal however, was fearing of being deposed by Imam al-Nizar, so he conspired to remove him. Aiming to retain the power of the state in his own hands, al-Afdal favoured the candidacy of al-Mustansir’s youngest son, Abul Kassim Ahmad, surnamed Musta’li, who would entirely depend upon him. Al-Musta’li was about 20 years old, and already married to al-Afdal’s daughter. Al-Afdal moved swiftly, and on the day following Imam al-Mustansir’s death, he placed the young prince on the throne with the title of al-Musta’li-billah. He quickly obtained for al-Musta’li the allegiance of the notables of the court. He also took favour of Imam al-Mustansir’s sister, who was prepared to declare a fabricated story that Imam al-Mustansir had changed the nass in favour of Musta’li at very last hour in presence of the qadi of Egypt, but the cause of change of nass was not given at all. Al-Afdal feared the growing power of Imam al-Nizar in Alexandria, where he spurred his horses in 488/1095, but suffered a sharp repulse in the first engagement, and retreated to Cairo. Al-Afdal once again took field with huge army and besieged Alexandria. He tempted the companions of Imam al-Nizar, and fetched them to his side. Ibn Massal was the first to have deserted the field from the thick of fight, and fled with his materials by sea towards Maghrib. Ibn Massal collected his wealth and fled to Lokk, a village near Barqa in Maghrib. This defection marked the turning point of Imam al-Nizar’s power. In addition, the long siege resulted great fortune to al-Afdal, wherein many skirmishes took place. Imam al-Nizar and his faithful fought valiantly, but due to the treachery of his men, he was arrested and taken prisoner with Abdullah and Iftagin to Cairo. According to Ibn Khallikan, Imam al-Nizar was immured by his brother al-Musta’li’s orders and al-Afdal had him shut up between two walls till he died in 490/1097. Al-Musta’li remained...

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Ismaili Journalism In Pakistan

Journalism in Pakistan: Al-Islam (1948) ed. by Ghulam Ali Chunara, Platinum Jubilee Review (1951) ed. by A.J. Chunara, Fidai Chronicle (Dacca, 1953) ed. M.R. Karwa. Mahrab (1954), Paigham (1955) ed. by Muhammad Ali B. Sayani, Parwaz (Dacca), Sargam (1958) ed. Kassim Ghari, Ismaili Mirror (1962), Ismaili World (1964) ed. by Sadruddin J. Hemani, Al-Qandeel (1965) from Peshawer, Al-Ismailia (1967) ed. by Noor Ali B. Mithani. Shinning Stars (1980). Phoolvadi (1980). Sevak (1989) ed. S.K. Tejani. The Ismailia Association for Pakistan also published Ismaili Bulletin (1974) and it was followed by Hidayat (1982). These were followed by the Waezeen Digest. Journalism in France: “The renowned journal, “The Ismaili France” started from Paris in 1990 and “Ismaili Contact” in Paris in 1992. Both disappeared very soon. Journalism in United Kingdom: The Ismailia Association for U.K. published Ilm in 1975 and Al-Misbah in 1981. The Ismaili Council for U.K. also brought forth Ismaili Forum in 1980, and also UK Ismaili in 1984. Journalism in United States: The Ismaili Council for the United States brought out Roshni and The American Ismaili in 1980, and The American Waezeen Digest in 1987. Journalism in East Africa: The Jubilee Bulletin started in 1945, which earned the name of Ismaili Prakash in 1947. The Diamond Jubilee Souvenir published in 1946. It was followed by Majlis. In 1950, with the existence of Ismailia Association for Kenya in Nairobi, the Africa Ismaili started and shifted its venue very soon from Mombasa to Nairobi. Africa Ismaili was the first communal journal in Africa to complete 25 years, which formerly used to appear as Ismaili Prakash. Meanwhile, a journal Education Bulletin appeared in 1939 from Mombassa and disappeared very soon. The same position with the following journals:- Old Boys Education Bulletin (1939), Old Boys (1945), Pukar (1945), Nuten Jyoti (1946), Bhawi Praja (1947), Mithi Mauj (1947), Paigham (1948), Awaz (1950), Imamat (1956), My Flag (1956) Awake (1964), etc. A weekly paper also appeared in Mombasa in 1938, known as Africa Tribune which last for 12 months. Hence, none among the above survived more. In Nairobi, the most prominent among the short-lived papers were:- Zahur (1939), edited by A.M. Sadruddin, Zaban and Awaz (1945), Al-Hussain (1947) and Waezeen Digest (1960), etc. In 1933, Uganda had Ismaili Yuvak which disappeared very soon as if it had never published. Kismu and had Ismaili Welfare Bulletin in 1940, also printed one Una Voc (one voice) between...

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Did the Pope sell Zyklon B?

A good question – why and how could Pope John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla) have sold Zyklon B during World War II when it was manufactured by a German firm? Why would Wojtyla wish to do this, as he had a Jewish mother and are there documents to support this? To answer these questions, let’s have a look at a little history. In the summer of 1938, Karol Wojtyla moved to Krakow in Poland where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages at the university, he also did his compulsory military training. In 1939, Nazi Germany’s occupation forces closed the University and from 1940 to 1944, Wojtyła worked at various jobs including as a salesman for a particular chemical company. The German I.G. Farben Industries Group (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie A.G.) had a branch and factory in Poland and the young (22 years old) Karol Wojtyla worked for them in their sales department. They also ran Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland as well as manufacturing the gas used to kill the prisoners. As an aside, Prince Bernhard of Holland was also a Nazi sympathizer and was on the board of I. G. Farben for a short time. He was also on the board of the KLM Dutch airline that flew many of the high level Nazis to South America at the end of the war. At one stage, Karol Wojtyla even wore a military uniform (I would assume Polish Army). He can be seen in a group of soldiers with the rifle and bayonet in a book by William Cooper, ‘Behold a Pale Horse’, page 81, Light Technology Publications, Milton William Cooper, 1991. William Cooper was a former United States Naval Intelligence Officer, and wrote several very good books. He disclosed a number of secrets and Karol Wojtyla receives a real pounding in a couple of them. Karol Wojtyla was elected Pope in 1978, being the only Polish Pope and the first non-Italian Pope for almost 600 years. He took the name John Paul II and held the position for 27 years until his death in 2005. Another reference to Karol Wojtyla is in my book “Tears in Heaven” published by Joshua Books and I quote: ‘Gone is the pretence of the Vatican being a benevolent organization that cares about the wellbeing of its flock or where they might spend eternity. The Vatican is...

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The Kodak Instamatic Camera History

The Kodak Instamatic was a brand of instamatic cameras designed by Kodak and introduced to the market in 1963. The term instamatic refers to the film loading process, which is quite simply to insert the film cartridge into the camera and it is ready to shoot. Even amateur photographers found it very easy to load and unload conventional film in this “instant” manner. Kodak released a series of inexpensive 126 and 110 cameras that were so easy to load and even easier to use. The Kodak Instamatic camera was quite literally an instant success and brought us a whole generation of low cost photography. Needless to say, several imitators soon began to flood the market. With all the popularity these cameras generated, the instamatic name is still used to describe any inexpensive point and shoot Kodak camera on the market. Kodak’s instamatic camera line was sold from 1963 all the way up unto 1988 with over 5 million cameras being produced and sold in the first 7 years of the product being launched. Talk about popular! The first instamatic camera from Kodak was the Hawkeye, it reigned supreme from the time of its launch in 1963 until 1967. The camera made use of the 126 film, a simple cartridge that was so easy to load even a child could do it. The film had a frame size of 1 x 1 inches. For the next 13 years or so many variations of the Hawkeye were introduced into the market. Following on from the success of the Hawkeye instamatic camera, Kodak launched a series of instamatics 100, 300 and 400, which were then followed by the 150, 500 and 800 among others. These cameras did not carry the Hawkeye name. Kodak also introduced the instamatic S-10 and S-20 models for which production began in 1967. Another range introduced by Kodak was the instamatic single lens, reflex camera followed by a chrome body instamatic. Model names continued to change as Kodak released new models each year, but the concept was still the same. The Kodak Instamatic Camera History Kodak’s instamatic camera first began retailing at under $10 and with each new release the price obviously changed. In fact, it would not be wrong to say that the Kodak name was founded on the success of the instamatic camera with its 126 film cartridge. Kodak alone sold a staggering sixty million or more...

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