Diabetes Is A Chronic, Debilitating And Costly Disease With Severe Complications Like Blindness, Heart Disease, Stroke, Kidney Failure

Introduction . Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease with severe complications like blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and lower limb amputations. It is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. When someone has the Type-1 diabetes, their bodies do not produce any or do not produce enough of the hormone called insulin to use the energy stored in food. Those with Type-2 or acquired diabetes cannot effectively use the insulin they produce. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear; however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved. Research has shown that some people who develop diabetes have common genetic markers. In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In Type II diabetes, age, obesity, and family history of diabetes play a role. Patient Y got Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus usually called Non–Insulin–dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) unlike patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus; patients with type 2 are not absolutely dependent on insulin for life. Adult or maturity- onset diabetes for it usually occurs after age 30yr, but can occur in children. Type II DM consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. For type 2 diabetes mellitus to occur, both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion must exist. For example,...

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Di Antara Penyakit Degeneratif Atau Penyakit Tidak Menular Yang Akan Meningkat Jumlahnya Di Masa Yang Akan Datang, Diabetes Adalah Salah Satu Diantaranya

BAB I PENDAHULUAN . Di antara penyakit degeneratif atau penyakit tidak menular yang akan meningkat jumlahnya di masa yang akan datang, diabetes adalah salah satu diantaranya. Peningkatan prevalensi diabetes melitus di beberapa negara berkembang adalah akibat dari peningkatan kemakmuran di negara bersangkutan (Suyono, 2006). Diabetes mellitus (DM) jika tidak ditangani dengan baik akan mengakibatkan timbulnya komplikasi pada berbagai organ tubuh seperi mata, ginjal, jantung, pembuluh darah kaki, syaraf, dll. Nefropati diabetik merupakan komplikasi mikrovaskular diabetes melitus. Abnormalitas awal yang dapat dibuktikan adalah hipertensi intrarenal, hiperfiltrasi (laju filtrasi glomerulus meningkat (GFR), dan mikroalbuminuria. Secara klinis, alat skrining yang paling pentinguntuk mengidentifikasi nefropati awal adalah deteksi mikroalbuminuria (Evans, 2000). Nefropati diabetes yang lanjut juga menjadi penyebab utamaglomerulosklerosis dan stadium akhir penyakit ginjal di seluruh dunia. Antara 20% dan 40% dari pasien dengan diabetes pada akhirnya berkembang menjadi nefropati. Riwayat alami nefropati diabetik  berbeda sesuai dengan jenis diabetes dan apakah mikroalbuminuria (didefinisikan sebagai > 30 mg tetapi < 300 mg albumin dalam urin per hari) hadir. Jika tidak diobati, 80% orang yang memiliki diabetes tipe 1 dan mikroalbuminuria akan berlanjut menjadi nefropati yang jelas (yakni proteinuria ditandai oleh > 300 mg albuminse diekskresikan per hari), sedangkan hanya 20-40% dari mereka dengandiabetes tipe 2 selama periode 15 tahun akan mengalami perkembangan. Di antara pasien yang memiliki diabetes tipe 1 dengan nefropati dan hipertensi, 50% akan terus berkembang menjadi stadium akhir penyakit ginjal dalam satu dekade (Dronavalli, 2008). Di dalam laporan perhimpunan nefrologi Indonesia (PERNEFRI) tahun 1995, disebutkan bahwa nefropati diabetik menduduki urutan nomer tiga (16,1%) setelah glomerulonefritis kronik (30,1%) dan pielonefrotis kronik (18,51 %) sebagai penyebab paling sering gagal ginjal terminal yang memerlukan cuci darah di Indonesia (Roesli, 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAB II LAPORAN KASUS I.Identitas Penderita Nama    : Tn. NT Umur    : 47 tahun...

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Developmental Task

Patients Data Name of Patient: Peach Twinkle T. Abundo Age: 1 ½ Sex: Female Address: Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes Religion: Roman Catholic Medical Data: Date of Admission: September 17. 2011 Time of Admission: 12:25 PM Hospital Number: 557 Attending Physician: Dr. Louie Panti Chief Complaint: Vomiting Diagnosis: Pneumonia, Intestinal Parasitism Health History Present Health History Peach Twinkle T. Abundo, 1 ½ years old, female from Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes was admitted at EBMC on September 17, 2011 at 12:25 PM with a chief complaint of vomiting. Upon admission baby Peach Twinkle T. Abundo is conscious and coherent. Her CR is 101 bpm, RR is 25 bpm and T of 37.1˚ C. She weighs 8 kg. Upon auscultation fine crackles is noted. Cough and colds are present. She also vomits and her mother claimed that there is a change in her bowel habit. Dr. Panti, as an Attending Physician, requested for laboratory examinations such as CBC and Stool Examination. The result of the Hematology revealed an increased in WBC counts therefore the patient have an infection. Past Health History   The patient is born through CS. Her feeding is composed of breastmilk and also formula milk. Her immunization is complete. The patient don’t have any past confinement after she was born. . . . . Developmental Task  Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt is Erikson’s second developmental stage, as the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. The parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will. The parents’ patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Children at this age like to explore the world around them and they are constantly learning about their environment. Caution must be taken at this age while children may...

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Department Of Neurosurgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark

Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print] Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma: A review. Pedersen CL, Romner B. Source . Department of Neurosurgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Abstract . Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a very heterogeneous clinical behaviour. Several factors affect prognosis, and these include age, histological subtype, and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) prior to surgery. Furthermore, a number of different molecular genetic alterations have been shown to affect both the prognosis as well as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially resected LGA yields a longer period of progression-free survival, whereas patients with radically resected tumours should receive radiotherapy at the time of progression. Regarding chemotherapy, we found evidence to suggest that patients respond to both temozolomide (TMZ) and the combination of procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV). However, the response rates in patients receiving PCV seem superior to those of patients receiving TMZ. In follow-up PET scans, the tracers (18)F-FDG and MET provide high sensitivities for detection of new suspicious lesions and these tracers are furthermore effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed. . Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. . PMID: 22819718 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Aug;51(2):245-50....

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Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever And Its Nursing Management

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and its Nursing Management . DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER AND ITS NURSING MANAGEMENT Summer season has now lapsed and rainy days are setting in. Philippines as a tropical country, is included to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention list for one which has dengue outbreaks for the past years.  According to the statistics, there were 126,000 dengue cases in the country last 2011. Thus, recently the Department of Health (DOH) strictly encourages the public citizens to continue and strengthen their fight against dengue. Today, the goal of the DOH according to Dr. Eric Tayag is to decrease the number of dengue cases to atleast 100,000 cases comparative to last year’s figures. There was a slight gist of hope for all since DOH has reported an 8.52% decline in dengue cases last January 1 to May 5 of this year; compared to the growth of cases last year on the same said period. Nevertheless, we should not be at ease of this since the peak season of dengue fever is still somewhere between the months of July and August. So, here are the things we should know about dengue hemorrhagic fever and its corresponding nursing care management. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by a bite of a vector mosquito called, Aedes Aegypti. This mosquito is considered to be a day- biting and low flying mosquito and commonly be found inside the household. On the other hand, some reports initiated by a study in the UP Los Banos had produced another suspicious mosquito to be a dengue carrier- known as Aedes Albopictus. This time, this said mosquito is a night biting mosquito and can be found spreading the virus in the outdoors.  DOH is however unsure if this specie of Aedes mosquito is the one responsible for the cases...

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