Payments For Environmental Services (pes) Approach

Payments for Environmental Services (PES) approach, as potential to reduce land degradation Haki Kola,1* Gazmend Zeneli,2 Janaq Male3 1National Resources Management Project Rruga “Sami Frasheri” No. 4 Tirana, Albania Phone: +355 68 20 27707 E-mail: haki_kola@yahoo.com *Author for correspondence 2University of Technology, Dresden Faculty of Forest-, Geo-, and Hydro-sciences Institute for International Forestry and Forest Products, Chair of East European Forest and Forest Products Pienner strasse 19, 01737 Tharandt Germany 3SNV -Netherlands Development Organization P.O.Box 1735 Tirana, Albania Abstract Introduction Payments for Environmental Services Study area Puka agroecosystems Forest Village and Family Forest Agricultural land Methods and approach proposed Approaches to valuation Forest, pasture and agricultural land as “Natural capital” Cost- Benefit Analysis of the Natural Capital and Conservation decision Recommended steps toward PES implementation Acknowledgements References Abstract Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are one type of economic incentive for those that manage ecosystems to improve the flow of environmental services that they provide. Paying for the provision of environmental services is an environmental policy tool attracting much attention in both developed and developing countries, but not yet applicable in Albania. This paper discusses the potential of implementation of PES by communities located in Drini’s Microcatchment where Albanian’s biggest Hydropower Plants of Fierza, Komani and Vau i Dejës are established. Over harvesting, fires and overgrazing in forest area within the Drini watershed is proportionally correlated with land degradation, increase of erosion and flooding, causing the load of the hydropower reservoirs, thus increasing the need for public investments for national road maintenance, and building dams for erosion control around the Hydropower Plants. The participation of local communities in forest management in the last decade has demonstrated that sound natural ecosystems perform critical life-support services, beneficial for both local communities and general public, but not all environmental uses generate financial returns to…

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Patient Has Been Diagnosed With Perineal Tear, And Vaginal Childbirth. Jc Has A 20 Gauge Peripheral Iv Site In His Left Posterior Forearm

Case study NURS 208 9-28-11 Mrs. Lattamore Dayna Lancaster JC is a 30 year old white female being cared for at Princess Anne Hospital she was admitted on September 20th she presented with abdominal and lower back pain. Mrs. JC has been married for six years prior to current child she has no children of her own. Mrs. JC was originally born and raised in Fallon, Nevada. She is not a smoker and during her pregnancy she had not consumed any alcohol. After discharge JC plans to be a stay at home mother until Breanna is one year of age. Patient has been diagnosed with perineal tear, and vaginal childbirth. JC has a 20 gauge peripheral IV site in his left posterior forearm. Currently JC has a full code and she is allergic to sulfur drugs. She responds to verbally commands well though she does seem to be lethargic due to recent vaginal delivery. She has been placed on a regular diet as of 0400 on 9/20 post delivery. JC does not require assistance with ADL’s. On September 21st 2011 at 0304 JC gave birth to a 4lb 7oz baby girl by the name of Breanna. JC was 38 gestational weeks when she went into labor, she had a vaginal birth. Childbirth also called labor, birth; is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman’s uterus. The process of normal human childbirth is categorized in three stages of labor: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and birth of the infant, and birth of the placenta. In many cases, with increasing frequency, childbirth is achieved through caesarean section, the removal of the neonate through a surgical incision in the abdomen, rather than through vaginal birth. Perineal…

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Nubain Should Not Be Administered To Patients

Generic/ Trade name Dosage/ Frequency Classification Indication Contraindication Side Effect Nursing Responsibilities nalbuphine hydrochloride 2 mg Opioid analgesics Nalbuphine is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It can also be used as a supplement to balanced anesthesia, for preoperative and postoperative analgesia, and for obstetrical analgesia during labor and delivery. Although Nalbuphine possesses narcotic antagonist activity, there is evidence that in nondependent patients it will not antagonize a narcotic analgesic administered just before, concurrently, or just after an injection. Therefore, patients receiving a narcotic analgesic, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, or other tranquilizers, sedatives, hypnotics, or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) concomitantly with Nalbuphine may exhibit an additive effect. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced. NUBAIN should not be administered to patients who are hypersensitive to nalbuphine hydrochloride, or to any of the other ingredients in NUBAIN. The most frequent side effect in 1066 patients treated with nalbuphine was sedation in 381 (36%). Other, less frequent reactions are: feeling sweaty/clammy 99 (9%), nausea/vomiting 68 (6%), dizziness/vertigo 58 (5%), dry mouth 44 (4%), and headache 27 (3%). Other adverse reactions which may occur (reported incidence of 1% or less) are: CNS effects: Nervousness, depression, restlessness, crying, euphoria, floating, hostility, unusual dreams, confusion, faintness, hallucinations, dysphoria, feeling of heaviness, numbness, tingling, unreality. The incidence of psychotomimetic effects, such as unreality, depersonalization, delusions, dysphoria and hallucinations has been shown to be less than that which occurs with pentazocine. Cardiovascular: Hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, pulmonary edema. Gastrointestinal: Cramps, dyspepsia, bitter taste. Respiration: Depression, dyspnea, asthma. Dermatological: Itching, burning, urticaria. Obstetric: Pseudo-sinusoidal fetal heart rhythm. -Taper dosage when discontinuing after prolonged use to avoid withdrawal symptoms. -Keep opioids antagonist and facilities for assisted or controlled respiration readily available in case of respiratory depression. -Reassure…

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Nancy Johnson

Phillip Johnson How many children does he have? Where does he live? What does he do? Where does he work? What time does he get to the office? Where does he usually have lunch? Where does he usually go after work? Why does he like his job? Which hotel does he prefer? Why does he prefer it? 2. Nancy Johnson Whose wife is she? Where is she from? What does she do? How many days a week does she teach? How many students are there in each class? Where does she go after lunch? What kind of plans does she look at? What kind of places does she decorate? Does she like to decorate restaurants? Why does she like to decorate homes? 3.Michael Johnson What kind of school does he go to? How far is it from his house by car? What grade is he in? What instrument does he play? Why does his mother think he drinks milk? What time does he finish school? Does he play any sports at school? When does he play football? Why is he popular? Why isn’t he a good student? 4. Denise Johnson How old is Denise Johnson? What kind of school does she attend? How does she go to school? Where does she go when she gets to school? How many teachers does she have in the morning? Who does she eat with? How many hours do the friends spend together? What does she sometimes do after school? What does the ballet teacher think about Denise? Which friend takes ballet lessons with Denise? 5. Nigel Perkins What nationality is he? How far north of London does he live? What’s his son’s name? What kind of people does his company investigate? Where does it have clients outside of the U.K.? What does Nigel…

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Multiple Gestation, Or Multiple Pregnancy, Occurs When Two Or More Fetuses Are Conceived At The Same Time In The Same Woman

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Multiple gestation, or multiple pregnancy, occurs when two or more fetuses are conceived at the same time in the same woman. Common multiples are two and three, known as twins and triplets, respectively. It can be differentiated from the term “multiple births” because it refers to the conception of the fetuses, and may or may not result in the live births of multiple babies. Certain factors appear to increase the likelihood that a woman will naturally conceive multiples. These includes mother’s age: women over 35 are more likely to have multiples than younger women, family history of multiple pregnancy (genetics), mother’s use of fertility drugs: approximately 35% of pregnancies arising through the use of fertility treatments such as IVF involve more than one child Multiple gestation is risky for the mothers. Blood pressure ay get too high resulting to pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and/or toxemia. Mother is also at risk to develop gestational diabetes. Having multiple pregnancy is more likely a risk to premature rupture of membranes, pre-term labor, anemia and postpartum hemorrhage. Because there are too many babies in the womb, mother might have miscarriage. Babies born from multiple-birth pregnancies are much more likely to result in premature birth and SGA than those from single pregnancies and that might also result to Cerebral Palsy. Multiples may become monochorionic, sharing the same chorion, with resultant risk of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Monochorionic multiples may even become monoamniotic, sharing the same amniotic sac, resulting in risk of umbilical cord compression and entanglement. In very rare cases, there may be conjoined twins, possibly impairing function of internal organs. Multiple pregnancy often result to malpresentation of the fetuses. Some of the managements of the multiple pregnancy are Another procedure that the medical world is using today is known as selective reduction, i.e. the termination of one or more, but not all, of the fetuses. This is often…

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