Discuss How Developing Countries And Developed Countries Pose Distinct Challenges For Multinational Enterprises’ Ethical Behaviour

. Discuss how developing countries and developed countries pose distinct challenges for multinational enterprises’ ethical behaviour? Using examples, discuss whether and how MNEs from developed countries adapt their ethical conduct and corporate social responsibility practices according to local expectations in developing countries. . Introduction Firms that operate internationally often encounter ethical dilemmas derived from differences in ethical principles/norms between home and host countries. What course of action is right or wrong is not always easy to ascertain when there is a disagreement in cultural values and interests. Whether multinational companies should adapt their behaviour to the local standards or follow the same universal principles upheld at home is an on going debate with no definite answer. As Donaldson (1996) agreed with the philosopher Michael Walzer, “There is no Esperanto of global ethics” . This essay commences by presenting some of the main theories regarding business ethics. After examining the ethical challenges that Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) face in a global context, it will be addressed in what degree MNEs adapt their activities to meet local values and norms. This essay also presents how some existing MNEs from developed countries have implemented their ethical strategies in developing countries. . Theories on Business Ethics Business ethics are the moral principles regarding right and wrong behaviours within a corporation. In an international context this is of particular importance as what is considered as good practice in one country may be considered unethical in another. This raises the question whether ethical principles should be adapted to local culture or whether moral principles are universal and should lead to the same behaviour around the world. Two different theoretical perspectives, relativism and absolutism, reflect both views (Cavusgil et al., 2013). . Cultural relativism follows the maxim “when in Rome do as Romans do”. Problems arise when dealing...

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Dimplementationofmaxwell’s Equationsin Matlabtostudythe Effect Of Absorption Using Pml

1-D Implementation of Maxwell’s Equations in MATLAB to Study the Effect of Absorption Using PML . Pranav K Shrivastava,Vikas Rathi, Hemant S Pokhariya Graphic Era Unversity ,Dehradun e-mail:{pranav.shantikunj,vikas.rth}@gmil.com . . Abstract: The Finite Difference Time Domain method   (FDTD)     uses     centre-difference representations   of   the   continuous   partial The 3D source free( J =0) Mxwell’s curl equations[5]  a homogeneous medium are: . ∂Ez − ∂Ey = −µ ∂Hx ∂y differential equations to create iterative numerical  dH  ∂Ex ∂z ∂Ez ∂t ∂Hy models of wave propagation. First we study the ∇×E = −µ → ∂z   − ∂x   = −µ ∂t propagation behavior of the wave in single dt  ∂Ey ∂Ex ∂Hz dimension without PML and in second part we study the absorption using PML for the same wave  ∂x   − ∂y = −µ ∂t using MATLAB environment. . I. INTRODUCTION . Finite-difference  time-domain  (FDTD)  is  a  popular computational electrodynamics modeling technique. Since it is a . ∇ × H = ε  ∂Hz d E      ∂Hx dt    ∂Hy →   ∂y ∂z  ∂x ∂Hy −   ∂z    = ε ∂Hz = −    ∂t  ε ∂Hx −   ∂y    = ε ∂Ex ∂t ∂Ey ∂t ∂Ez ∂t time-domain method, solutions can cover a wide frequency range with a single simulation run. ∂Ex   = −µ ∂Hy ∂z  ∂t ∂Hy   = −ε ∂Ex The FDTD method belongs in the general class of grid-based differential time-domain numerical modeling methods. The time- dependent Maxwell’s equations (in partial differential form) are discretized using central-difference approximations to the space and time partial   derivatives. The resulting finite-difference equations are solved in either software or hardware in a leapfrog manner: the electric field vector components in a volume of space are solved at a given instant in time; then the magnetic field vector components in the same spatial volume are solved at the next instant in time; and the process is...

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UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . . . . UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . The basic concepts and procedures for dimensional analysis were developed by hydraulic engineers to determine the performances of a prototype (a full-scale structure) from the data obtained by tests on a model ( a reduced-scale structure). Here we present the general method of dimensional analysis and illustrates its application to various problems of fluid machines. Some of the important principles of similarity and use of dimensionless numbers in model analysis are also studied. . . SYSTEM OF DIMENSIONS: Dimensions refer to the qualitative characteristics for physical quantities, while units are standards of comparison for quantitative measure of dimensions. The most common systems of dimensioning a physical quantity and the Mass-length-time and the Force-length-time systems referred to as the MLT and FLT systems of units. There is no direct relationship between the quantities length L, mass M and time T. These independent quantities are called fundamental quantities. In compressible fluids, one more dimension namely temperature θ is also taken as the fundamental dimension. All other quantities such as pressure, velocity and energy etc. are expressed in terms of these fundamental quantities and are called derived or secondary quantities. For example F=MLT−2:M=FT2L−1 . . Physical quantity Symbol Dimensions M-L-T System F-L-T System *Fundamental quantities . . . Mass M M FL-1T2 Length L L L Time T T T Force F MLT-2 F *Geometric quantities . . . Area A L2 L2 Volume V L3 L3 *Kinematic quantities . . . Linear velocity u,V,U LT-1 LT-1 Angular velocity ω T-1 T-1 Acceleration a LT-2 LT-2 Discharge Q,q L3 T-1 L3 T-1 Gravity g LT-2 LT-2 Kinematic viscosity ν L2 T-1 L2 T-1 *Dynamic quantities . . . Density ρ ML-3 FL-4T2 Specific Weight w ML-2T-2 FL-3 Surface tension σ...

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Di Antara Penyakit Degeneratif Atau Penyakit Tidak Menular Yang Akan Meningkat Jumlahnya Di Masa Yang Akan Datang, Diabetes Adalah Salah Satu Diantaranya

BAB I PENDAHULUAN . Di antara penyakit degeneratif atau penyakit tidak menular yang akan meningkat jumlahnya di masa yang akan datang, diabetes adalah salah satu diantaranya. Peningkatan prevalensi diabetes melitus di beberapa negara berkembang adalah akibat dari peningkatan kemakmuran di negara bersangkutan (Suyono, 2006). Diabetes mellitus (DM) jika tidak ditangani dengan baik akan mengakibatkan timbulnya komplikasi pada berbagai organ tubuh seperi mata, ginjal, jantung, pembuluh darah kaki, syaraf, dll. Nefropati diabetik merupakan komplikasi mikrovaskular diabetes melitus. Abnormalitas awal yang dapat dibuktikan adalah hipertensi intrarenal, hiperfiltrasi (laju filtrasi glomerulus meningkat (GFR), dan mikroalbuminuria. Secara klinis, alat skrining yang paling pentinguntuk mengidentifikasi nefropati awal adalah deteksi mikroalbuminuria (Evans, 2000). Nefropati diabetes yang lanjut juga menjadi penyebab utamaglomerulosklerosis dan stadium akhir penyakit ginjal di seluruh dunia. Antara 20% dan 40% dari pasien dengan diabetes pada akhirnya berkembang menjadi nefropati. Riwayat alami nefropati diabetik  berbeda sesuai dengan jenis diabetes dan apakah mikroalbuminuria (didefinisikan sebagai > 30 mg tetapi < 300 mg albumin dalam urin per hari) hadir. Jika tidak diobati, 80% orang yang memiliki diabetes tipe 1 dan mikroalbuminuria akan berlanjut menjadi nefropati yang jelas (yakni proteinuria ditandai oleh > 300 mg albuminse diekskresikan per hari), sedangkan hanya 20-40% dari mereka dengandiabetes tipe 2 selama periode 15 tahun akan mengalami perkembangan. Di antara pasien yang memiliki diabetes tipe 1 dengan nefropati dan hipertensi, 50% akan terus berkembang menjadi stadium akhir penyakit ginjal dalam satu dekade (Dronavalli, 2008). Di dalam laporan perhimpunan nefrologi Indonesia (PERNEFRI) tahun 1995, disebutkan bahwa nefropati diabetik menduduki urutan nomer tiga (16,1%) setelah glomerulonefritis kronik (30,1%) dan pielonefrotis kronik (18,51 %) sebagai penyebab paling sering gagal ginjal terminal yang memerlukan cuci darah di Indonesia (Roesli, 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAB II LAPORAN KASUS I.Identitas Penderita Nama    : Tn. NT Umur    : 47 tahun...

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Developmental Task

Patients Data Name of Patient: Peach Twinkle T. Abundo Age: 1 ½ Sex: Female Address: Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes Religion: Roman Catholic Medical Data: Date of Admission: September 17. 2011 Time of Admission: 12:25 PM Hospital Number: 557 Attending Physician: Dr. Louie Panti Chief Complaint: Vomiting Diagnosis: Pneumonia, Intestinal Parasitism Health History Present Health History Peach Twinkle T. Abundo, 1 ½ years old, female from Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes was admitted at EBMC on September 17, 2011 at 12:25 PM with a chief complaint of vomiting. Upon admission baby Peach Twinkle T. Abundo is conscious and coherent. Her CR is 101 bpm, RR is 25 bpm and T of 37.1˚ C. She weighs 8 kg. Upon auscultation fine crackles is noted. Cough and colds are present. She also vomits and her mother claimed that there is a change in her bowel habit. Dr. Panti, as an Attending Physician, requested for laboratory examinations such as CBC and Stool Examination. The result of the Hematology revealed an increased in WBC counts therefore the patient have an infection. Past Health History   The patient is born through CS. Her feeding is composed of breastmilk and also formula milk. Her immunization is complete. The patient don’t have any past confinement after she was born. . . . . Developmental Task  Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt is Erikson’s second developmental stage, as the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. The parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will. The parents’ patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Children at this age like to explore the world around them and they are constantly learning about their environment. Caution must be taken at this age while children may...

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