Correlation And Dependence

Correlation and dependence From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about correlation and dependence in statistical data. For other uses, see correlation (disambiguation). In statistics, correlation and dependence are any of a broad class of statistical relationships between two or more random variables or observed data values. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a product and its price. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. Correlations can also suggest possible causal, or mechanistic relationships; however, statistical dependence is not sufficient to demonstrate the presence of such a relationship. Formally, dependence refers to any situation in which random variables do not satisfy a mathematical condition of probabilistic independence. In general statistical usage, correlation or co-relation can refer to any departure of two or more random variables from independence, but most commonly refers to a more specialized type of relationship between mean values. There are several correlation coefficients, often denoted ρ or r, measuring the degree of correlation. The most common of these is the Pearson correlation coefficient, which is sensitive only to a linear relationship between two variables (which may exist even if one is a nonlinear function of the other). Other correlation coefficients have been developed to be more robust than the Pearson correlation, or more sensitive to nonlinear relationships.[1][2][3] Several sets of (x, y) points, with the correlation coefficient of x and y for each set. Note that the correlation reflects the noisiness and direction of a linear relationship (top row), but not the slope of...

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Aplastic anemia Classification and external resources ICD–10 D60–D61 ICD–9 284 OMIM 609135 DiseasesDB 866 MedlinePlus 000554 eMedicine med/162 MeSH D000741 Aplastic anemia is a disease in which the bone marrow, and the blood stem cells that reside there, are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia).[1][2] Aplastic refers to inability of the stem cells to generate the mature blood cells. It occurs most commonly in the teens and twenties, and also among the elderly. It can be caused by exposure to chemicals, drugs, radiation, infection, immune disease, and heredity; in about half the cases, the cause is unknown.[1][2] The definitive diagnosis is by bone marrow biopsy; normal bone marrow has 30-70% blood stem cells, but in aplastic anemia, these cells are mostly gone and replaced by fat.[1][2] Aplastic anemia is treated with immunosuppressive drugs, typically either anti-lymphocyte globulin or anti-thymocyte globulin, combined with corticosteroids and cyclosporine, with a response rate of about 70%; this indicates that aplastic anemia has an auto-immune component. Stem cell transplant is also used, especially for patients <30 years.[1][2] Contents   [hide] • 1 Signs and symptoms • 2 Causes • 3 Diagnosis • 4 Treatment ◦ 4.1 Follow-up • 5 Prognosis • 6 See also • 7 References • 8 External links Signs and symptoms [edit] • Anemia with malaise, pallor and associated symptoms such as palpitations • Thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts), leading to increased risk of hemorrhage, bruising and petechiae • Leukopenia (low white blood cell count), leading to increased risk of infection • Reticulocytopenia (low counts of reticulocytes, that is, immature red blood cells) Causes [edit] Aplastic anemia can be caused by exposure to chemicals, drugs, radiation, infection, immune disease, and heredity; in about half the cases, the cause is unknown.[1][2] Aplastic anemia is also sometimes associated with exposure to toxins such as benzene, or with the use of certain drugs, including chloramphenicol, carbamazepine, felbamate, phenytoin,quinine, and phenylbutazone. Many drugs are associated with aplasia mainly according to...

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An Act Providing For A Comprehensive Water Quality Management And For Other Purposes

POLICY OUTLINE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9275 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES . . Also known as “Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004” COVERAGE OF THE ACT: This Act shall apply to water quality management in all water bodies: Provided, That: (a) it shall primarily apply to the abatement and control of pollution from land based sources; (b) the water quality standards and regulations and the civil liability and penal provisions under this Act shall be enforced irrespective of sources of pollution. . DEFINITION OF TERMS: a) Aquifer – means a layer of water-bearing rock located underground that transmits water in sufficient quantity to supply pumping wells or natural springs. b) Aquatic life – means all organisms living in freshwater, brackish and marine environment. c) Beneficial use – means the use of the environment or any element or segment thereof conducive to public or private welfare, safety and health; and shall include, but not be limited to, the use of water for domestic, municipal, irrigation, power generation, fisheries, livestock raising, industrial, recreational and other purposes. 1. Use of water for domestic purposes – means the utilization of water for drinking, washing, bathing, cooking or other household needs, home gardens and watering of lawns or domestic animals; 2. Use of water for municipal purposes – means the utilization of water for supplying water requirements of the community; 3. Use of water for irrigation – means the utilization of water for producing agricultural crops; 4. Use of water for power generation – means the utilization of water for producing electrical or mechanical power; 5. Use of water for fisheries – means the utilization of water for the propagation of culture of fish as a commercial enterprise; 6. Use of water for livestock raising – means...

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Abstract, Features.some Aspects Of Water Filtering Activity Of Filter-feeders.

Abstract, features. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Paper, статья http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/09/some-aspects-of-water-filtering.html Features: New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality; a unique review of the ecological role of filter-feeders, suspension feeders in water (both  freshwater and marine) ecosystems, a   first paper to formulate a short  list of the most vital roles and functions as ecosystem engineers; unique summary of quantitative data on filtration activity of invertebrates; detailed, unique, fresh-angle analysis of how filter-feeders contribute to water quality improvement and water self-purification; new, deeper understanding of ecosystem services as related to filter-feeders; • Author/Автор: Ostroumov S.A. • Journal/Журнал: Hydrobiologia • Vol/Том: 542 • Номер: 1 • Year/Год издания: 2005 • Издательство: Kluwer Academic Publishers • Местоположение издательства: Netherlands • First page/ Первая страница: 275 • Последняя страница: 286 • DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1 • Indexed: Web of Science.  •  New concepts and terminology were introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality. Opinion paper. Also, a review paper. Title: Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Author(s): Ostroumov S.A. Source: HYDROBIOLOGIA, 2005, Volume: 542, Pages: 275-286, DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1; Published: JUL 1 2005, Text online free, in English: www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/ http://www.econf.rae.ru/article/6964 ** Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286 (in Eng.). Bibliogr. 63 refs. DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1. ISSN 0018-8158 (Print) 1573-5117 (Online). ——————- • Full text see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914201; ————  • ABSTRACT. The author gave a fresh review and innovative analysis of the vital role of filter-feeders in functioning and maintenance of stability of aquatic ecosystems (both freshwater and marine ones). The paper includes the following tables which summarize many facts and innovative ideas. Table 1. Examples of the impact of filter-feeders on the water column: clearance time. Table 2. Examples of diversity of taxa of benthic organisms involved in removing seston from water, and filtration rates. Table 3. Effect of the increase in concentration of algae on...

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Choosing A Business Structure.

Business Structure Choosing a Business Structure According to the current situation of the business world the best business structure that one should choose to start his/her would be corporation type structure. Corporation is a form of business that creates separate and different legal entity which is mutually owned by several shareholders or investors [www.hg.org (2015)]. The reason that why one should this business structure is its number of advantages, one of them which is the company itself held accountable for all the debts and liabilities the business incurs or arouses. There are lot of other justifications as well which can be quote to give a rationale that corporation structure is the best type business structure to choose. For example, owners and holders have right to use corporate loss to offset or neutralize income from other ways or sources. Owners are able to break and divide the profit among all owners and corporation which will lower the overall taxation rate. No owner have personal responsibility of Owners have no personal liability for malpractice and illegal actions of other owners. So here were some of the advantages which can make anyone’s mind to choose corporation as their business structure [www.inc.com (2000)]. There are other advantages as well. It is really easy to raise money in a corporation business. Company can increase its capital by issuing stocks and bonds to a public or other businesses. This activity will make transfer of ownership from one person to another very easy and attainable as one stockholder can sell its stocks or shares to other person through stock exchange market. Corporation business increases the credibility of the company as suppliers, customers and investors have more trust and interests in corporation. One of the most interesting advantage of this business structure is that it never ends and...

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