Payments For Environmental Services (pes) Approach

Payments for Environmental Services (PES) approach, as potential to reduce land degradation Haki Kola,1* Gazmend Zeneli,2 Janaq Male3 1National Resources Management Project Rruga “Sami Frasheri” No. 4 Tirana, Albania Phone: +355 68 20 27707 E-mail: haki_kola@yahoo.com *Author for correspondence 2University of Technology, Dresden Faculty of Forest-, Geo-, and Hydro-sciences Institute for International Forestry and Forest Products, Chair of East European Forest and Forest Products Pienner strasse 19, 01737 Tharandt Germany 3SNV -Netherlands Development Organization P.O.Box 1735 Tirana, Albania Abstract Introduction Payments for Environmental Services Study area Puka agroecosystems Forest Village and Family Forest Agricultural land Methods and approach proposed Approaches to valuation Forest, pasture and agricultural land as “Natural capital” Cost- Benefit Analysis of the Natural Capital and Conservation decision Recommended steps toward PES implementation Acknowledgements References Abstract Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are one type of economic incentive for those that manage ecosystems to improve the flow of environmental services that they provide. Paying for the provision of environmental services is an environmental policy tool attracting much attention in both developed and developing countries, but not yet applicable in Albania. This paper discusses the potential of implementation of PES by communities located in Drini’s Microcatchment where Albanian’s biggest Hydropower Plants of Fierza, Komani and Vau i Dejës are established. Over harvesting, fires and overgrazing in forest area within the Drini watershed is proportionally correlated with land degradation, increase of erosion and flooding, causing the load of the hydropower reservoirs, thus increasing the need for public investments for national road maintenance, and building dams for erosion control around the Hydropower Plants. The participation of local communities in forest management in the last decade has demonstrated that sound natural ecosystems perform critical life-support services, beneficial for both local communities and general public, but not all environmental uses generate financial returns to…

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Performance Appraisal Means

CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL MEANS:- In sophisticated well-managed organization, performance appraisal is the single important management tool. No other management process has a much influence over individuals’ careers and work lives. Used well performance appraisal, is the most powerful instrument that organization have to mobilize the energy of every employee of the enterprise towards the achievement of strategic goals. Used well performance appraisal can focus every person’s attention on company’s vision, mission, objectives and values. “Performance appraisal is a formal management system that provides for the evaluation of the quality of an individual’s performance in an organization. The appraisal is usually prepared by the employees’ immediate supervisor. The procedures typically requires the supervisor to fill out a standardized assessment form the evaluates the individual on several different dimensions and then discusses the result of the evaluation with employee.”   OBECTIVES OF THE STUDY To find out the different appraisal systems followed by companies. To find out who appraises the employees. To analyze and study the benefits of the appraisal systems. To analyze the shortcomings of the appraisal systems. To identify the criteria and measures adopted to evaluate employee performance. To find out the level of effectiveness of the 360 degree feedbacks. INDUSTRY PROFILE Introduction Retail means selling goods and services in small quantities directly to customers. Retailing consists of all activities involved in marketing of goods and services directly to consumer for their personnel family and household use. The Indian retailing industry is becoming intensely competitive, as more and more payers are Vying for the same set of customers. The major retail players are Pantaloon Retail, Shoppers Stop, Reliance, etc., Retailing is one of the biggest sectors and it is witnessing revolution in India. The new entrant in retailing in India signifies the beginning of retail revolution. India’s retail market is…

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Penjabaran Mata Kuliah

Versi : 2 Revisi: 2 Tanggal Revisi :19 September 2014 Tanggal Berlaku :26 September 2014 PENJABARAN MATA KULIAH (COURSE OUTLINE) Identitas Mata Kuliah Nama mata kuliah :Pendidikan Agama I Kelompok mata kuliah :Mata kuliah Pembentuk Kompetensi Utama Bobot sks : 2 SKS Nomor Mata Kuliah : 10000711 Semester : I (Ganjil) Prasyarat : – Program studi : Akuntansi (kelasa) Fakultas :Ekonomi Nama Dosen : Junanah, Dr, MIS Deskripsi Matakuliah Matakuliah Pendidikan Agama I, merupakan Matakuliah Universitas [kurikulum lokal] yang diberikan pada semester I [Satu] untuk Program Studi Akuntansi, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Islam Indonesia dengan bobot 2 SKS. Dasar pemikiran munculnya mata kuliah Pendidikan Agama I yang merupakan mata kuliah kekhususan UII, didasarkan pada statuta UII pada mukaddimah yaitu …. dalam rangka melahirkan pemimpin umat dan bangsa yang mampu menampakan prinsip-prinsip Islam sebagai prinsip-prinsip modern yang membawa rahmat bagi seluruh bangsa dan umat manusia. Pada Bab II, pasal 7, ditegaskan UII bertujuan : ayat [1] : membentuk tenaga ahli dan sarjana muslim, bertaqwa, berakhlaq mulia, terampil, berilmu amalia dan beramal ilmiah, dan pada ayat [3] : turut serta membangun masyarakat dan negara RI adil dan makmur berdasarkan Pancasila, UUD 1945 yang diridloi Allah Swt. Maka sesuai dengan Visi dan Misi Universitas dan jurusan, secara ideal mata kuliah ini diharapkan dapat mewujudkan pendidikan agama secara terpadu di Universitas Islam Indonesia. Di sisi lain, matakuliah ini memberikan kemampuan dasar bagi mahasiswa untuk memahami dan menghayati Akidah Islam secara benar   Peta Konsep (Concept Map) Dengan Peta Konsep ini, diharapkan dapat mengarahkan mahasiswa untuk mengetahui materi-materi kuliah Pendidkan Agama Iyang akan dipelajari selama satu semester. Kontrak belajar dan Overview Pengantar dari Pokok Bahasan Bahasa Arab II selama satu semester dan Refrence yang digunakan   IMAN KEPADA MALAIKAT MANUSIA DAN AGAMA ALLHA SEBAGAI KHALIK MANUSIA SBG MAKHLUK FITRAH MANUSIA AGAMA ISLAM KARAKTERISTIK AJARAN ISLAM PENDIDIKAN…

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People Treat Facebook As An Authentic Part Of Their Lives

The best way to optimise your own advertising strategy is to see how others have used Facebook Adverts as an effective marketing solution. Whether it’s a product, event, local business or service, these advertisers have had success in: Using our targeting to reach their exact audience Developing efficient, cost-effective strategies to maximise their budgets Building a community of supporters and customers Successful targeting People treat Facebook as an authentic part of their lives, so you can be sure you are connecting with real people with real interest in your products. Facebook Adverts provided CM Photographic with the ability to target its exact demographic: 24-30-year-old women whose relationship status on Facebook indicated that they were engaged. Over 12 months, CM Photographics generated nearly $40,000 in revenue directly from a $600 advertising investment on Facebook. Of the Facebook users who were directed to CM Photographics’ website from the adverts, 60% became qualified leads and actively expressed interest in more information. Increased ROI Facebook Adverts makes it easy and cost-effective to quickly set up and manage your campaign. G5 found success setting up a series of Facebook Advert campaigns for StorQuest self-service storage facilities targeted towards university students at 21 campuses prior to the summer break. Real-time suggested bids for our auction-based system provided guidance that enabled G5 to hone advert effectiveness based on their various targeting filters (age, university level and location). The results from StorQuest’s Facebook advert campaign were one of their highest performing online advertising efforts: Over 50% increase in total rentals versus prior year at the same store. 10% conversion rate from visits originating from Facebook Adverts. On par with Google AdWords on a cost-per-lead and cost-per-customer basis. $1.25 CPC delivered $10.25 cost-per-lead. $100 average rentals; $600 average life time value per customer. Facebook pages and adverts When you advertiseFacebook Pages or Facebook…

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Overview China, Hong Kong, Taiwan

Overview China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Internet penetration of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan are 40%, 75% and 75% respectively. Although in absolute terms of number of internet users, China leads with 538 million users, followed by Taiwan with 17 million users and lastly Hong Kong with 5 million users.   In terms of Internet users and in terms of internet penetration, the following figures give us a clearer picture of previous statements.   As we can see, comparison between absolute number of internet users and internet penetration shows very different picture in Asia, especially when considering China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The age demographics of internet users for these three countries is represented through the following figures.     Growth in internet penetration and mobile penetration in China has been phenomenal. The growth charts given below illustrate this over the years.   Internet penetration growth has been steady over the years, and there is no reason why the trend would not continue. Even though internet penetration is less than 50%, China has the most number internet users in the world. Theuse of internet on mobile also has grown quickly with double digit growth registered in 2008 and 2009. Even though the growth rate has been comparatively slow in 2010 to 2012, it still is a healthy growth. The figure below points out the major activities on mobile by Chinese mobile users. Clearly instant messaging is the major activity. This is the reason for success of many instant messaging applications in China such as Wechat (known as Weixin in China), Line and similar other apps. Mobile microblogging has always been very actively pursued by Chinses users. Even though previous applications such as Fanfaou, Jiwai and Digu were shut down by the government, the new platform Weibo has still attracted many users…

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