Diabetes Is A Chronic, Debilitating And Costly Disease With Severe Complications Like Blindness, Heart Disease, Stroke, Kidney Failure

Introduction . Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease with severe complications like blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and lower limb amputations. It is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. When someone has the Type-1 diabetes, their bodies do not produce any or do not produce enough of the hormone called insulin to use the energy stored in food. Those with Type-2 or acquired diabetes cannot effectively use the insulin they produce. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear; however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved. Research has shown that some people who develop diabetes have common genetic markers. In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In Type II diabetes, age, obesity, and family history of diabetes play a role. Patient Y got Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus usually called Non–Insulin–dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) unlike patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus; patients with type 2 are not absolutely dependent on insulin for life. Adult or maturity- onset diabetes for it usually occurs after age 30yr, but can occur in children. Type II DM consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. For type 2 diabetes mellitus to occur, both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion must exist. For example,...

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Developmental Task

Patients Data Name of Patient: Peach Twinkle T. Abundo Age: 1 ½ Sex: Female Address: Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes Religion: Roman Catholic Medical Data: Date of Admission: September 17. 2011 Time of Admission: 12:25 PM Hospital Number: 557 Attending Physician: Dr. Louie Panti Chief Complaint: Vomiting Diagnosis: Pneumonia, Intestinal Parasitism Health History Present Health History Peach Twinkle T. Abundo, 1 ½ years old, female from Calatagan Virac, Catanduanes was admitted at EBMC on September 17, 2011 at 12:25 PM with a chief complaint of vomiting. Upon admission baby Peach Twinkle T. Abundo is conscious and coherent. Her CR is 101 bpm, RR is 25 bpm and T of 37.1˚ C. She weighs 8 kg. Upon auscultation fine crackles is noted. Cough and colds are present. She also vomits and her mother claimed that there is a change in her bowel habit. Dr. Panti, as an Attending Physician, requested for laboratory examinations such as CBC and Stool Examination. The result of the Hematology revealed an increased in WBC counts therefore the patient have an infection. Past Health History   The patient is born through CS. Her feeding is composed of breastmilk and also formula milk. Her immunization is complete. The patient don’t have any past confinement after she was born. . . . . Developmental Task  Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt is Erikson’s second developmental stage, as the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. The parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will. The parents’ patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Children at this age like to explore the world around them and they are constantly learning about their environment. Caution must be taken at this age while children may...

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Contraindicated With Allergy To Naproxen, Salicylates, Other Nsaids; Pregnancy; Lactation

Naproxen . . . . Brand Name: Apo-Naproxen (CAN), EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Naxen (CAN), Novo-Naprox (CAN), naproxen sodium, Aleve, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, Apo-Napro-Na (CAN), Synflex (CAN) . . . . . Pregnancy Category B (first and second trimesters), Pregnancy Category D (third trimester) . . . . Drug classes: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Analgesic (non-narcotic) . . . . . Therapeutic actions . Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities largely related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis; exact mechanisms of action are not known. . . . . . Indications . · Mild to moderate pain . . · Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout . . · OTC use: temporary relief of minor aches and pains associated with the common cold, headache, toothache, muscular aches, backache, minor pain of arthritis, pain of menstrual cramps, reduction of fever . . · Treatment of juvenile arthritis (naproxen only) . . . . . Contraindications . · Contraindicated with allergy to naproxen, salicylates, other NSAIDs; pregnancy; lactation. . . . . . Adverse effects . Headache, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, fatigue, tiredness, dizziness, tinnitus, ophthalmic effects . . Rash, pruritus, sweating, dry mucous membranes, stomatitis . . Nausea, dyspepsia, GI pain, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, flatulence . . Dysuria, renal impairment, including renal failure, interstitial nephritis, hematuria . . Bleeding, platelet inhibition with higher doses, neutropenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, aplastic anemia, decreased Hgb or Hct, bone marrow depression, menorrhagia . . Dyspnea, hemoptysis, pharyngitis, bronchospasm, rhinitis . . Peripheral edema, anaphylactoid reactions to anaphylactic shock . . . . . Drug Interactions: . · Increased serum lithium levels and risk of toxicity with naproxen . . . . . Nursing considerations . · Give with food or after meals if GI upset occurs. . . ·...

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Contraindicated With Allergy To Acetaminophen

Generic name: • paracetamol Classification: • Analgesics • Muscle Relaxants MECAHNISM OF ACTION ♥ Decreases fever by inhibiting the effects of pyrogens on the hypothalamus heat regulating centers & by a hypothalamic action leading to sweating & vasodilatation. ♥Relieves pain by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis at the CNS but does not have anti-inflammatory action because of its minimal effect on peripheral prostaglandin synthesis. INDICATIONS ♥ Relief of mild-to-moderate pain; treatment of fever. CONTRAINDICATIONS Contraindicated to patients with: ☼ Hypersensitivity ☼ intolerance to tartrazine (yellow dye #5), alcohol, table sugar, saccharin ☼ Contraindicated with allergy to acetaminophen ADVERSE EFFECTS OF THE DRUG Stimulation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, hepatic seizure(overdose, Renal failure(high, prolonged doses), leucopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia (long term use) thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, rash, urticaria, hypersensitivity, cyanosis, anemia, jaundice, CNS, stimulation, delirium followed by vascular collaps, convulsions, coma, death. NURSING INTERVENTION and PRECAUTIONS ♥ Assess patient’s fever or pain: typeof pain, location, intensity, duration, temperature, and diaphoresis. ♥Assess allergic reactions: rash, urticaria; if these occur, drug may have to be discontinued. ♥Teach patient to recognize signs of chronic overdose: bleeding, bruising, malaise, fever, sore throat. ♥Tell patient to notify prescriber for pain/ fever lasting for more than 3 days. . Generic Name: Hyoscine-N-butylbromide . Brand Name:  Buscopan Classification: Antispasmodic; Anticholinergic . Therapeutic Actions: Hyoscine-N-butylbromide (HNBB) acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system. Buscopan exerts a spasmolytic action on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal, biliary and urinary tracts. As a quaternary ammonium derivative, hyoscine-N- butylbromide does not enter the central nervous system. Therefore, anticholinergic side effects at the central nervous system do not occur. Peripheral anticholinergic effects result from a ganglion-blocking action within the visceral wall as well as from anti- muscarinic activity. Indications: Buscopan Tablets are indicated for the relief of spasm...

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Compression Injuries Are Often Caused By Falls Or Jumps In Which The Person Lands Directly On The Head, Sacrum

I. INTRODUCTION. Compression injuries are often caused by falls or jumps in which the person lands directly on the head, sacrum, or feet. The force of impact fractures the vertebrae and the fragments compress the cord. Disk and bone fragments may be propelled into the spinal cord on impact. The lumbar and the lower thoracic vertebrae are the most commonly injured regions after a compression impact when the person lands on the feet. If the person lands on the head, the injury is to the cervical spine. About 50% of these injuries result in incomplete lesions. Incomplete lesions occur when some of the spinal tracts remain intact. Injury to the spinal cord can range in severity from mild flexion-extension “whiplash” injuries to complete transaction of the cord with permanent quadriplegia. Trauma to the cord can occur at any level but most commonly occurs in the cervical and lower thoracic-upper lumbar vertebrae. These common cord injuries are due in part to the support given by the ribs to the thoracic spine and the flexibility of the cervical and lumbar spinal segments. Trauma is the most common cause of SCI. Each year about 10,000 people sustain such injury. Most victims are males between the ages of 16 ND 30 years; only 9% of injuries occur in people over the age of 60. Traumatic SCI is most often caused by automobile or motorcycle accidents, gunshots or knife wounds, falls, and sports mishaps. More than half of all SCIs involve the cervical spine, and the rest occur in the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal segments. The feeling of immortality often experienced by adolescents and young adults contributes strongly to their risk of SCI. Young people may believe they can engage in dangerous behavior without being injured. The use of alcohol and illicit drugs can...

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