Diabetes Is A Chronic, Debilitating And Costly Disease With Severe Complications Like Blindness, Heart Disease, Stroke, Kidney Failure

Biology Healthcare

Introduction . Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease with severe complications like blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and lower limb amputations. It is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. When someone has the Type-1 diabetes, their bodies do not produce any or do not produce enough of the hormone called insulin to use the energy stored in food. Those with Type-2 or acquired diabetes cannot effectively use the insulin they produce. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear; however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved. Research has shown that some people who develop diabetes have common genetic markers. In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In Type II diabetes, age, obesity, and family history of diabetes play a role. Patient Y got Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus usually called Non–Insulin–dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) unlike patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus; patients with type 2 are not absolutely dependent on insulin for life. Adult or maturity- onset diabetes for it usually occurs after age 30yr, but can occur in children. Type II DM consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. For type 2 diabetes mellitus to occur, both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion must exist. For example, all overweight individuals have insulin resistance, but diabetes develops only in those who cannot increase insulin secretion sufficiently to compensate for their insulin resistance. Their insulin concentrations may be high, yet inappropriately low for the level of glycemia. In the Philippines, one out of every five adult Filipinos are diabetic, according to the latest national survey conducted on the prevalence of diabetes in the country. The survey, conducted in 2007 by the Philippine Cardiovascular Outcome Study on Diabetes Mellitus (PhilCOS-DM). Furthermore, it shows that as many as three out of five adults are already diabetic or on the verge of…

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